Dysphagia in NMOSD and MOGAD as a surrogate of brain involvement

Published on Jan 12, 2021in European Journal of Neurology4.516
· DOI :10.1111/ENE.14691
Marc Pawlitzki11
Estimated H-index: 11
(WWU: University of Münster),
Marc Pawlitzki1
Estimated H-index: 1
(WWU: University of Münster)
+ 7 AuthorsBendix Labeit5
Estimated H-index: 5
(WWU: University of Münster)
Sources
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) are demyelinating disorders that typically affect the optic nerves and the spinal cord. However, recent studies have demonstrated various forms of brain involvement indicating encephalitic syndromes, which consequently are included in the diagnostic criteria for both. Swallowing is processed in a distributed brain network and is therefore disturbed in many neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in NMOSD and MOGAD using flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) as a surrogate parameter of brain involvement. METHODS Thirteen patients with NMOSD and MOGAD (mean age 54.2 ± 18.6 years, six men) who received FEES during clinical routine were retrospectively reviewed. Their extent of oropharyngeal dysphagia was rated using an ordinal dysphagia severity scale. FEES results were compared to a control group of healthy individuals. Dysphagia severity was correlated with the presence of clinical and radiological signs of brain involvement, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the occurrence of pneumonia. RESULTS Oropharyngeal dysphagia was present in 8/13 patients, including six patients without other clinical indication of brain involvement. Clinical or subclinical swallowing impairment was significantly more severe in patients with NMOSD and MOGAD compared to the healthy individuals (p = 0.009) and correlated with clinical signs of brain involvement (p = 0.038), higher EDSS (p = 0.006) and pneumonia (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION Oropharyngeal dysphagia can occur in NMOSD and MOGAD and might be associated with pneumonia and disability. FEES may help to detect subclinical brain involvement.
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Over the past few years, new-generation cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem encephalitis, as well as with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like presentations. Most experts now consider MOG-IgG-associated encephalomyelitis (MOG-EM) a disease entity in its own right, immunopathogenetically distinct from both classic mult...
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Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) are present in a subset of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG-negative patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis. Little is known so far about brainstem involvement in MOG-IgG-positive patients.
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