Genetic Association between Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Cardiomyopathies
Published on Feb 1, 2021
· DOI :10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003126
BACKGROUND Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) with risk of poor outcome has been linked to MYH6 variants, implicating overlap in genetic etiologies of structural and myopathic heart disease. METHODS Whole genome sequencing was performed in 197 probands with HLHS, 43 family members, and 813 controls. Data were filtered for rare, segregating variants in 3 index families comprised of an HLHS proband and relative(s) with cardiomyopathy. Whole genome sequencing data from cases and controls were compared for rare variant burden across 56 cardiomyopathy genes utilizing a weighted burden test approach, accounting for multiple testing using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS A pathogenic MYBPC3 nonsense variant was identified in the first proband who underwent cardiac transplantation for diastolic heart failure, her father with left ventricular noncompaction, and 2 fourth-degree relatives with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A likely pathogenic RYR2 missense variant was identified in the second proband, a second-degree relative with aortic dilation, and a fourth-degree relative with dilated cardiomyopathy. A pathogenic RYR2 exon 3 in-frame deletion was identified in the third proband diagnosed with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and his father with left ventricular noncompaction and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. To further investigate HLHS-cardiomyopathy gene associations in cases versus controls, rare variant burden testing of 56 genes revealed enrichment in MYH6 (P=0.000068). Rare, predicted-damaging MYH6 variants were identified in 10% of probands in our cohort-4 with familial congenital heart disease, 4 with compound heterozygosity (3 with systolic ventricular dysfunction), and 4 with MYH6-FLNC synergistic heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS Whole genome sequencing in multiplex families, proband-parent trios, and case-control cohorts revealed defects in cardiomyopathy-associated genes in patients with HLHS, which may portend impaired functional reserve of the single-ventricle circulation.