Strategic confrontation: Examining the utility of low stakes prodding as a strategy for confronting sexism.

Published on May 4, 2021in Journal of Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1080/00224545.2020.1829529
Julie A. Woodzicka13
Estimated H-index: 13
(W&L: Washington and Lee University),
Jessica J. Good13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Davidson College)
Confronting sexism has been routinely operationalized in experimental research as assertive behavior that expresses disapproval of sexism. The present research examines an indirect confrontation st...
#1Margo J. Monteith (Purdue University)H-Index: 29
#2Mason D. Burns (UIndy: University of Indianapolis)H-Index: 2
Last. Laura K. Hildebrand (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
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Abstract People often wonder what to say and how to say it during confrontable moments. Through our review and organization of relevant research, we present a “roadmap” for navigating successful confrontations. To prepare for confrontable moments, we argue that people can receive “drivers training” (e.g., to increase bias literacy) and “pack appropriately for the trip” (e.g., bringing optimism). After encountering a confrontable moment, would-be confronters can head directly into a confrontation...
3 CitationsSource
#1Jessica J. Good (Davidson College)H-Index: 13
#2Diana T. Sanchez (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 31
Last. Corinne A. Moss-Racusin (Skidmore College)H-Index: 22
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5 CitationsSource
#1Larry R. Martinez (PSU: Portland State University)H-Index: 13
#2Michelle R. Hebl (Rice University)H-Index: 52
Last. Isaac E. Sabat (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 9
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Abstract In this research, we examine prejudice based on sexual orientation in the workplace and strategies employees can use to confront it. First, in a qualitative investigation designed to examine some of the major assumptions of this research, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) employees and heterosexual “allies” highlighted the importance of confronting prejudice and reported hesitation in knowing how to do so effectively. Second, we then experimentally tested various previously-identified co...
16 CitationsSource
#1Robyn K. Mallett (LUC: Loyola University Chicago)H-Index: 21
#2Thomas E. Ford (WCU: Western Carolina University)H-Index: 21
Last. Julie A. Woodzicka (W&L: Washington and Lee University)H-Index: 13
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Sexist humor may be more difficult to confront than serious expressions of sexism because humor disguises the biased nature of the remark. The present research investigated whether delivering a sexist remark as a joke, compared to a serious statement, tempered perceptions that the speaker was sexist which, in turn, made women less likely to confront. Using a computer-mediated instant messaging paradigm, women were randomly assigned to receive the same sexist remark phrased either in a serious ma...
22 CitationsSource
#1Kimberly Barsamian Kahn (PSU: Portland State University)H-Index: 14
#2Manuela Barreto (University of Exeter)H-Index: 30
Last. Marco Silva Rego (University of Exeter)H-Index: 1
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This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members’ support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more s...
13 CitationsSource
#1Julie A. Woodzicka (W&L: Washington and Lee University)H-Index: 13
#2Robyn K. Mallett (LUC: Loyola University Chicago)H-Index: 21
Last. Astrid V. Pruitt (W&L: Washington and Lee University)H-Index: 1
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21 CitationsSource
#1Leslie Ashburn-Nardo (IUPUI: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis)H-Index: 16
#2John C. Blanchar (IUPUI: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis)H-Index: 7
Last. Stephanie A. Goodwin (Wright State University)H-Index: 9
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Two experiments examined the role of perpetrator power in witnesses’ decision to confront a prejudicial remark. In Experiment 1, participants who witnessed a sexist remark by a higher-power (vs. an equal-power) perpetrator were significantly less likely to express confrontation intentions, despite finding the remark highly biased and inappropriate. In Experiment 2, participants read scenarios involving a sexist versus racist remark perpetrated by someone higher vs. lower vs. equal in power, and ...
35 CitationsSource
#1Julia C. Becker (University of Osnabrück)H-Index: 29
#2Manuela Barreto (University of Exeter)H-Index: 30
This research examines male and female perceivers’ reactions to a female target who (1) confronted sexism nonaggressively, (2) confronted sexism aggressively (by slapping the perpetrator), or (3) did not confront sexism. Results (N = 152) indicated that, overall, both women and men responded most favorably to the female target who confronted nonaggressively. Nonaggressive confrontation was perceived as relatively unthreatening for women and relatively threatening for men, whereas the remaining r...
69 CitationsSource
Taking action against discrimination has positive consequences for well-being (e.g., Cocking & Drury, 2004) but most of this research has focused on collective actions and has used methodologies assessing one point in time. This study therefore used a diary methodology to examine how women’s everyday confrontations of discrimination would affect measures of subjective and psychological well-being, and how these relationships would change over time. In a 28-day online diary study, women indicated...
11 CitationsSource
#1Jessica J. Good (Davidson College)H-Index: 13
#2Corinne A. Moss-Racusin (Yale University)H-Index: 22
Last. Diana T. Sanchez (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 31
view all 3 authors...
Across two studies, we tested whether perceived social costs and benefits of confrontation would similarly predict confronting discrimination both when it was experienced and when it was observed as directed at others. Female undergraduate participants were asked to recall past experiences and observations of sexism, as well as their confronting behaviors. Path modeling in Study 1 (N = 148) demonstrated that women were more likely to report confronting if they believed that the confrontation wou...
45 CitationsSource
Cited By1
#1Jessica J. Good (Davidson College)H-Index: 13
#2Julie A. Woodzicka (W&L: Washington and Lee University)H-Index: 13
Last. Kimberly A. Bourne (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Research on confronting prejudice frequently defines an effective confrontation as one that induces change in the perpetrator's prejudicial beliefs or actions. We argue for a broader definition, defining successful confrontation as one that elicits the confronter's desired response. Using a community sample of 152 adults, we conducted an exploratory study in which participants recalled a time when they had confronted racism or sexism. Results revealed a frequent mismatch between what confronters...