Cathodes of Medical X-Ray Tubes

Published on Jan 1, 2020
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-030-47291-7_5
Abstract This paper compares very different physical principles of X-ray production to spur ideation. Since more than 120 years, bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes has been the workhorse of medical diagnostics. Generated by X-ray segments comprised of X-ray tubes and high-voltage generators in the various medical systems, X-ray photons in the spectral range between about 16 keV and 150 keV deliver information about anatomy and function of human patients and in pre-clinical animal studies. Despite o...
11 CitationsSource
#1Rolf BehlingH-Index: 1
Preface Acknowledgments Author Symbols Historical Introduction and Survey The Discovery in Fall 1895 The Early Days of X-rays Major Steps of Progress References Physics of Generation of Bremsstrahlung Acceleration of Electrons Efficiency of Energy Conversion The X-ray Continuum Spectrum Characteristic Radiation Characteristic Radiation and Discontinuous Attenuation Theory of the Angular Distribution of the Continuum Radiation Angular Distribution of Characteristic Radiation Polarization Theory o...
14 Citations
#1Emily Gidcumb (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 7
#2Bo Gao (RTP: Research Triangle Park)H-Index: 13
Last. Otto Zhou (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 68
view all 6 authors...
For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed ...
40 CitationsSource
Jan 15, 2014 in BioMED (Biomedical Engineering)
#1D. I. KaryuginH-Index: 1
#2V. N. StolyarovH-Index: 2
Last. I. N. StolyarovH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
been introduced into medical practice. These include such new methods as tomosynthesis, computer tomogra phy, digital mammography, etc. They differ considerably from conventional methods. Progress in X ray methods requires development of new models of X ray emitters providing necessary per formance and service life. The X ray emitter provides the required X ray tube anode current. Direct helical tungsten emitters are most commonly used. The emitter temperature is 230
1 CitationsSource
#1Efrat Shefer (Philips)H-Index: 3
#2Ami Altman (ATC: Advanced Technology Center)H-Index: 9
Last. Oren Zarchin (ATC: Advanced Technology Center)H-Index: 1
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The three CT components with the greatest impact on image quality are the X-ray source, detection system and reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, we focus on the first two. We describe the state-of-the-art of CT detection systems, their calibrations, software corrections and common performance metrics. The components of CT detection systems, such as scintillator materials, photodiodes, data acquisition electronics and anti-scatter grids, are discussed. Their impact on CT image quality, thei...
56 CitationsSource
Vacuum electronics (VE) have dominated development and industrial growth in their application areas from the end of the 19th century to the end of 20th century. VE have contributed to basic concepts of physics and have enabled important basic inventions. Despite this bright past, in the meantime also a complete or partial replacement by new technologies such as solid-state electronics (SSE) occurred in several applications areas, triggered by the demand for new features and leading to new applic...
33 CitationsSource
#1Boris Ch. DjubuaH-Index: 1
#2Oleg K. KultashevH-Index: 1
Last. E.M. ZemchikhinH-Index: 3
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Metal alloy cathodes based on alloys Pt-Ba, Pd-Ba, Ir-La, Ir-Ce, Os-Th and Re-Th are described. These metal alloy cathodes have a unique combination of emission, thermal and physical properties and found a wide application in vacuum microwave devices (traveling-wave tubes, backward-wave oscillators, klystrons, magnetrons). Cathode design of these metal alloy cathodes is described and will be presented.
3 CitationsSource
#1E. V. Barmina (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 11
#2A. A. Serkov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 9
Last. Georgii A Shafeev (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 18
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Laser-assisted nano-texturing of W substrates cathodes via ablation in liquid environment is experimentally realized. Two laser sources are used, either a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser or a Nd:YAG laser with pulse duration of 350 ps. Laser exposure of W results in the formation of hemi-spherical nanostructures situated on top of periodic ripples. Nano-textured thermionic W cathode demonstrates the decrease of the efficient work function by 0.3 eV compared to pristine surface.
27 CitationsSource
May 18, 2010 in IVEC (International Vacuum Electronics Conference)
#1Rolf Karl Otto Behling (Philips)H-Index: 4
#2Stefan Hauttmann (Philips)H-Index: 1
Last. Wolfram Maring (Philips)H-Index: 1
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A novel compact rotating anode X-ray tube with high electron focusing capability of a paired magnetic quadrupole system is presented. The tube offers a high power density even at relatively low tube voltage, where the X-ray flux at a detector behind an object is very limited. Its various focal spot deflection capabilities helpto reduce image artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution of the corresponding Computed Tomography system, and enable X-ray beam intensity control and compensation of mecha...
5 CitationsSource
#1G. GaertnerH-Index: 1
#2H. W. P. KoopsH-Index: 1
12 CitationsSource
Cited By1
Abstract null null Replacing moving mechanics in computed tomography (CT) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has inspired numerous projects to develop alternative X-ray sources. While less suitable for CT, DBT is a viable target application for the multi-X-ray-source array tube suggested in Becker, A.E., et al. (2020): A prototype Multi-X-ray-source array (MXA) for digital breast tomosynthesis. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 65(23), 235033. The proposed prototype MXA tube comprises rotating ...