Effect of Earlier Atrioventricular Valve Intervention on Survival After the Fontan Operation.
Published on Dec 15, 2020in American Journal of Cardiology2.57
· DOI :10.1016/J.AMJCARD.2020.09.028
Whereas the prevalence and impact of atrioventricular valve (AVV) regurgitation in patients with single ventricle physiology has become increasingly apparent, the optimal timing for valve intervention is unclear. To investigate this, we performed a retrospective review of all 1,167 patients from the Mayo Clinic Fontan database. Thirteen percent (153 patients) had AVV repair or replacement during their staged single ventricle palliation. We found that patients with right ventricular morphology and common AVV were at increased risk for AVV intervention. Patients who underwent AVV intervention had increased risk of death/transplant compared with those who did not (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.75, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.23, p <0.001). With respect to valve intervention timing, whereas AVV intervention before Fontan presented similar risk for death/transplant compared with no AVV intervention (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.27, p = 0.74), intervention at time of Fontan had a significantly higher risk (HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.97, p = 0.01), and intervention after Fontan had a much more substantial risk (HR = 3.83, 95% CI 2.54 to 5.79, p <0.001). AVV repair failure occurred in 11% of patients. In terms of relative risk of valve repair versus replacement, in post-Fontan AVV intervention patients, AVV replacement carried a 2.9 fold risk of death/transplant compared with AVV repair. In conclusion, AVV disease remains a considerable challenge for durable Fontan physiology. This data demonstrates that earlier intervention on valve pathology improves survival with the Fontan circulation. Continued surveillance of single ventricle patients and prompt referral of those with valve pathology can improve outcomes in this challenging population.