Association between metabolic risk factors and optic disc cupping identified by deep learning method.
Published on Sep 17, 2020in PLOS ONE2.74
· DOI :10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0239071
Purpose This study aims to investigate correlation between metabolic risk factors and optic disc cupping and the development of glaucoma. Methods This study is a retrospective, cross-sectional study with over 20-year-old patients that underwent health screening examinations. Intraocular pressure (IOP), fundus photographs, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum triglycerides, serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and serum HbA1c were obtained to analyse correlation between metabolic risk factors and glaucoma. Eye with glaucomatous optic neuropathy(GON) was defined as having an optic disc with either vertical cup-to-disc ratio(VCDR) ≥ 0.7 or a VCDR difference ≥ 0.2 between the right and left eyes by measuring VCDR with deep learning approach. Results The study comprised 15,585 subjects and 877 subjects were diagnosed as GON. In univariate analyses, age, BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, WC, triglyceride, LDL-C, HbA1c, and IOP were significantly and positively correlated with VCDR in the optic nerve head. In linear regression analysis as independent variables, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that age, BMI, systolic BP, HbA1c, and IOP showed positive correlation with VCDR. In multivariate logistic analyses of risk factors and GON, higher age (odds ratio [OR], 1.054; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.046–1.063), male gender (OR, 0.730; 95% CI, 0.609–0.876), more obese (OR, 1.267; 95% CI, 1.065–1.507), and diabetes (OR, 1.575; 95% CI, 1.214–2.043) remained statistically significant correlation with GON. Conclusions Among the metabolic risk factors, obesity and diabetes as well as older age and male gender are risk factors of developing GON. The glaucoma screening examinations should be considered in the populations with these indicated risk factors.