The Utility of Grimace Scales for Practical Pain Assessment in Laboratory Animals

Published on Oct 9, 2020in Open Access Journal
· DOI :10.3390/ANI10101838
Daniel Mota-Rojas22
Estimated H-index: 22
,
Adriana Olmos-Hernández5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 3 AuthorsAlexandra L. Whittaker11
Estimated H-index: 11
Sources
Abstract
Animals' facial expressions are widely used as a readout for emotion. Scientific interest in the facial expressions of laboratory animals has centered primarily on negative experiences, such as pain, experienced as a result of scientific research procedures. Recent attempts to standardize evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain in laboratory animals has culminated in the development of "grimace scales". The prevention or relief of pain in laboratory animals is a fundamental requirement for in vivo research to satisfy community expectations. However, to date it appears that the grimace scales have not seen widespread implementation as clinical pain assessment techniques in biomedical research. In this review, we discuss some of the barriers to implementation of the scales in clinical laboratory animal medicine, progress made in automation of collection, and suggest avenues for future research.
References104
Newest
#1Daniel Mota-Rojas (UAM: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana)H-Index: 22
Last. Agustín Orihuela (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos)H-Index: 18
view all 8 authors...
The science of animal welfare has evolved over the years, and recent scientific advances have enhanced our comprehension of the neurological, physiological, and ethological mechanisms of diverse animal species. Currently, the study of the affective states (emotions) of nonhuman animals is attracting great scientific interest focused primarily on negative experiences such as pain, fear, and suffering, which animals experience in different stages of their lives or during scientific research. Studi...
7 CitationsSource
#1Jeffrey S. Mogil (McGill University)H-Index: 91
#2Daniel S.J. Pang (U of C: University of Calgary)H-Index: 1
Last. Christine T. Chambers (Dal: Dalhousie University)H-Index: 58
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACT The measurement of pain in animals is surprisingly complex, and remains a critical issue in veterinary care and biomedical research. Based on the known utility of pain measurement via facial expression in verbal and especially non-verbal human populations, “grimace scales” were first developed a decade ago for use in rodents and now exist for 10 different mammalian species. This review details the background context, historical development, features (including duration), psychometric pr...
15 CitationsSource
#1Niek Andresen (Technical University of Berlin)H-Index: 1
#2M. Wöllhaf (Technical University of Berlin)H-Index: 1
Last. Vitaly Belik (FU: Free University of Berlin)H-Index: 9
view all 7 authors...
Assessing the well-being of an animal is hindered by the limitations of efficient communication between humans and animals. Instead of direct communication, a variety of parameters are employed to evaluate the well-being of an animal. Especially in the field of biomedical research, scientifically sound tools to assess pain, suffering, and distress for experimental animals are highly demanded due to ethical and legal reasons. For mice, the most commonly used laboratory animals, a valuable tool is...
8 CitationsSource
#1Lindsay J. Henderson (Newcastle University)H-Index: 6
#2Tom V. Smulders (Newcastle University)H-Index: 24
Last. Johnny V. Roughan (Newcastle University)H-Index: 7
view all 3 authors...
Handling of laboratory mice is essential for experiments and husbandry, but handling can increase anxiety in mice, compromising their welfare and potentially reducing replicability between studies. The use of non-aversive handling (e.g., tunnel handling or cupping), rather than the standard method of picking mice up by the tail, has been shown to enhance interaction with a handler, reduce anxiety-like behaviours, and increase exploration and performance in standard behavioural tests. Despite thi...
3 CitationsSource
#1Nejc Dolensek (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 2
#2Daniel A Gehrlach (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 4
Last. Nadine Gogolla (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion relies on objective readouts of the emotional state of an individual, which remains a major challenge especially in animal models. We found that mice exhibit stereotyped facial expressions in response to emotionally salient events, as well as upon targeted manipulations in emotion-relevant neuronal circuits. Facial expressions were classified into distinct categories using machine learning and reflected the changing intrinsic value of th...
57 CitationsSource
#1Lars Lewejohann (FU: Free University of Berlin)H-Index: 26
#2Kerstin Schwabe (MHH: Hannover Medical School)H-Index: 18
Last. Paulin Jirkof (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 13
view all 4 authors...
Animal welfare is a growing societal concern and the well-being of animals used for experimental purposes is under particular scrutiny. The vast majority of laboratory animals are mice living in sm...
5 CitationsSource
#1Zoe Y Hsi (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 1
#2Leslie A Stewart (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 1
Last. Kristin N Grimsrud (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) mouse model is a vital tool for studying the pathophysiology of bariatric surgery and contributes greatly to research on obesity and diabetes. However, complications including postsurgical hypoglycemia can have profoundly negative effects. Unlike in humans, blood glucose (BG) is not typically managed in postoperative rodents, despite their critical role as translational models; without this management, rodents can experience hypoglycemia, potentially impairing...
2 CitationsSource
#1Lisa Ernst (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 4
#2Marcin Kopaczka (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 6
Last. Rene Tolba (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 30
view all 9 authors...
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) has been widely used for the noninvasive examination of distress/pain in mice. The aim of this study was to further improve its performance to generate repeatable, fas...
8 CitationsSource
#1Amanda Spring de Almeida (UFSM: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria)H-Index: 7
#2Flávia Karine Rigo (Unesc: Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense)H-Index: 17
Last. Gabriela Trevisan (UFSM: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria)H-Index: 25
view all 12 authors...
Abstract Breast carcinoma causes severe pain, which decreases the quality of life of patients. Current treatments produce adverse effects and have limited efficacy. Transient potential receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is related to the onset of cancer and neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of TRPA1 in a model of breast carcinoma. We injected 4T1 cells in the fourth caudal mammary fat pad of female BALB/c mice, and after 20 days we observed mechanical and cold allod...
6 CitationsSource
#1Lisa Ernst (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 4
#2Marcin Kopaczka (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 6
Last. Rene Tolba (RWTH Aachen University)H-Index: 30
view all 15 authors...
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) is an established method for estimating pain in mice during animal studies. Recently, an improved and standardized MGS set-up and an algorithm for automated and blinde...
4 CitationsSource
Cited By4
Newest
#1Suresh Neethirajan (WUR: Wageningen University and Research Centre)H-Index: 33
Emotions play an indicative and informative role in the investigation of farm animal behaviors. Systems that respond and can measure emotions provide a natural user interface in enabling the digitalization of animal welfare platforms. The faces of farm animals can be one of the richest channels for expressing emotions. We present WUR Wolf (Wageningen University & Research: Wolf Mascot)--a real-time facial expression recognition platform that can automatically code the emotions of farm animals. U...
2 CitationsSource
Last. Timothy Hugh BarkerH-Index: 7
view all 3 authors...
The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was developed 10 years ago as a method for assessing pain through the characterisation of changes in five facial features or action units. The strength of the technique is that it is proposed to be a measure of spontaneous or non-evoked pain. The time is opportune to map all of the research into the MGS, with a particular focus on the methods used and the technique’s utility across a range of mouse models. A comprehensive scoping review of the academic literature wa...
2 CitationsSource
This collection includes the manuscripts published in the Special Issue of Animals: Refinements to Animal Models for Biomedical Research [...].
Source