The Utility of Grimace Scales for Practical Pain Assessment in Laboratory Animals

Published on Oct 9, 2020in Open Access Journal
· DOI :10.3390/ANI10101838
Daniel Mota-Rojas22
Estimated H-index: 22
Adriana Olmos-Hernández5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 3 AuthorsAlexandra L. Whittaker11
Estimated H-index: 11
Animals' facial expressions are widely used as a readout for emotion. Scientific interest in the facial expressions of laboratory animals has centered primarily on negative experiences, such as pain, experienced as a result of scientific research procedures. Recent attempts to standardize evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain in laboratory animals has culminated in the development of "grimace scales". The prevention or relief of pain in laboratory animals is a fundamental requirement for in vivo research to satisfy community expectations. However, to date it appears that the grimace scales have not seen widespread implementation as clinical pain assessment techniques in biomedical research. In this review, we discuss some of the barriers to implementation of the scales in clinical laboratory animal medicine, progress made in automation of collection, and suggest avenues for future research.
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The science of animal welfare has evolved over the years, and recent scientific advances have enhanced our comprehension of the neurological, physiological, and ethological mechanisms of diverse animal species. Currently, the study of the affective states (emotions) of nonhuman animals is attracting great scientific interest focused primarily on negative experiences such as pain, fear, and suffering, which animals experience in different stages of their lives or during scientific research. Studi...
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This collection includes the manuscripts published in the Special Issue of Animals: Refinements to Animal Models for Biomedical Research [...].