Infectious causes of acute pancreatitis: A systematic review

Published on Aug 30, 2020in Pancreatology3.629
· DOI :10.1016/J.PAN.2020.08.018
Zaid Imam6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Beaumont Hospital),
C. Roberto Simons-Linares5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Cleveland Clinic),
Prabhleen Chahal13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Cleveland Clinic)
Abstract Background Infectious etiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are rare and include viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, parasites, and fungi. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive review on infectious etiologies of AP analyzing the frequency, clinical features, and outcomes of individuals presenting with this condition. Methods Eligible articles reporting on AP attributed to infectious etiologies were included. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed from time of inception and until September 6,2019 was performed using all relevant MeSH (medical subject heading) keywords. Articles were assessed for eligibility and independently reviewed by two reviewers for clinical features of AP, local complications, and mortality. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Murad tool. Results A total of 212 articles were included, of which 168 (79.2%) were at high risk of bias. 320 cases of AP were identified. Viruses were the leading etiology of infection attributed AP (65.3%) followed by helminths (19.1%), and bacteria (12.5%). Protozoa, mycobacteria, and fungi accounted for the remaining 3.1% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 ± 18.4 years and M:F ratio was 1.94:1. Mortality occurred in 50 patients. Mortality rate was higher in the virus attributed AP patients than AP from other infectious etiologies (21.8% vs. 7.0%, p  Interpretation Literature quality on infection attributed AP is limited. Virus attributed AP appears to carry a higher mortality than other etiologies of infection attributed AP.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
3 Citations
15 Authors (Grace Lui, ..., David Hui)
44 Citations
5 Citations
: West Nile virus infection is more frequently associated with neuroinvasive disease and high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe a 47-year-old Egyptian kidney transplant recipient who was admitted to our department in 2016 for persistent fever, altered mental status, and upper limb tremors. In addition, renal impairment, signs of acute thrombotic microangiopathy, pancreatitis, and slightly altered inflammatory indices were present. The patient was treated with ...
8 CitationsSource
AbstractRationale:Massive intestinal bleeding as a complication of typhoid fever has rarely been reported due to the advent of antibiotics. In addition, although several literatures have been issued on the use and success of endoscopic modalities in cases of massive typhoid ulcer bleeding, few have
2 CitationsSource
#1Michael J. LoftusH-Index: 4
#2Michelle K Yong (Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre)H-Index: 11
Last. Anton Y. Peleg (Monash University, Clayton campus)H-Index: 58
view all 4 authors...
: We report a case of fatal disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) with delayed-onset rash in a 66-year-old female more than 2 years following uncomplicated deceased donor renal transplantation. Whilst on a stable regimen of maintenance immunosuppression, the patient presented with chest and abdominal pain with concomitant hepatitis and pancreatitis. After pursuing multiple other potential causes of her symptoms, the correct diagnosis of VZV was only suspected after the development of a wides...
8 CitationsSource
#1Alexander Maier (University of Freiburg)H-Index: 4
#2Rafael Kaeser (University of Freiburg)H-Index: 2
Last. Tobias Boettler (University of Freiburg)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Background Leptospirosis or Weil’s disease is caused by pathogenic spirochete bacteria called Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is usually transmitted by urine of rodents and dogs with an incubation time of 7–14 days. The clinical spectrum ranges from a subclinical infection to a fulminant septic course.
5 CitationsSource
#1Ripal Jariwala (Tampa General Hospital)H-Index: 2
#2Kristen Zeitler (Tampa General Hospital)H-Index: 6
Last. Chakrapol Sriaroon (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
The use of immunosuppressing agents can act as a catalyst for viral reactivation, promoting systemic infection with organ involvement. Current literature remains sparse on this topic but does provide individual case reports involving single viruses. We present the case of an immunocompromised patient with skin lesions, pancreatitis, colitis and hepatitis. Work-up revealed varicella zoster virus, which likely put the patient at risk for multi-organ involvement, as well as clinical suspicion of ot...
2 CitationsSource
#1Kazuhiro Tange (Ehime University)H-Index: 2
#2Tomoyuki YokotaH-Index: 37
Last. Yoichi Hiasa (Ehime University)H-Index: 53
view all 12 authors...
We experienced a rare case of acute pancreatitis caused by Candida infection. A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Blood tests revealed high amylase and hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities, and the patient was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 15-mm space-occupying lesion at the parenchyma of the pancreatic head. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed after conservative treatment, w...
1 CitationsSource
#1Kali A. HopkinsH-Index: 1
#2Mahmoud H. AbdouH-Index: 1
Last. M. Azam HadiH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Infections from coxsackie B2 viruses often cause viral myocarditis and, only rarely, multisystem organ impairment. We present the unusual case of a 42-year-old man in whom coxsackie B2 virus infect...
4 CitationsSource
#1Kirill Pavlov (Bosch)H-Index: 8
#2Parweez Koehestanie (Bosch)H-Index: 1
Last. Loes H C Nissen (Bosch)H-Index: 9
view all 6 authors...
This case report describes a young, immunocompromised patient who presented with thoracic pain. After an extensive workup, she was diagnosed with a varicella zoster virus infection with involvement of the gastric mucosa, pancreas and lungs for which she was treated with acyclovir. Although the viral load decreased significantly, the patient had persistent postherpetic neuralgia and nausea.
2 CitationsSource
#1Andrew R. Albert (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 1
#2Ronald Valencia (Georgetown University)H-Index: 1
Last. Janet Smereck (Georgetown University)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Author(s): Albert, Andrew R.; Valencia, Ronald; Smereck, Janet A. | Abstract: Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury, concurrent with encephalopathy and loss of hepatic synthetic function, in a patient without known pre-existing liver disease. Evaluation of acute liver failure in the emergency department should focus on identification of treatable causes. Acute liver failure from acute hepatitis B infection is a rare but potentially lethal occurrence. Multi-organ dysfunction...
3 CitationsSource
#1Radhika ChavanH-Index: 8
#2Mohan RamchandaniH-Index: 21
Last. D. Nageshwar ReddyH-Index: 32
view all 6 authors...
1 CitationsSource
Cited By3
Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread widely across the world inducing a global health crisis. Predominant signs of infection involve respiratory symptoms such as cough and dyspnea. Investigation into COVID-19 infection-associated gastrointestinal symptoms remains fluid. COVID-19-induced acute pancreatitis has been recorded from greater than 20 countries at this time. Herein, we submit a case of COVID-19-attributed acute pancreatitis, as well as a comprehensive assessment of previously reporte...
With the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been an explosion of scientific literature on the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur in 15-20% of COVID-19 patients; however, there have not been many case reports on acute pancreatitis in COVID-19 patients. The expression of ACE-2 ([angiotensin-converting enzyme 2] the host receptor for SARS-CoV-2) is very high ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sofía Palacios (University of Los Andes)
Last. Cristian VarelaH-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic presents an ongoing global health threat. The SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause substantial pulmonary disease, and most of the current radiological publications are dedicated to describing and characterizing these findings. However, studies regarding imaging findings in the abdomen and pelvis of infected patients are still very limited. The aim of this review is to discuss the most frequent abdominal manifestations based on the current literature and representative ima...