Early implicit-explicit discrepancies in self-esteem as correlates of childhood depressive symptoms.

Published on Dec 1, 2020in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
· DOI :10.1016/J.JECP.2020.104962
Dario Cvencek11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UW: University of Washington),
Anthony G. Greenwald111
Estimated H-index: 111
(UW: University of Washington)
+ 1 AuthorsAndrew N. Meltzoff112
Estimated H-index: 112
(UW: University of Washington)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract This longitudinal study examined early social–cognitive markers that might be associated with the emergence of childhood depression and anxiety. At 5 years of age, 137 children completed an implicit self-esteem measure. At 9 years of age, the same children completed measures of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. Two novel findings emerged. First, higher implicit self-esteem at age 5 than explicit self-esteem at age 9 (implicit > explicit discrepancy) was associated with depressive symptoms at age 9, but not with symptoms of anxiety. Second, this cross-age implicit > explicit discrepancy was associated with depressive symptoms more strongly than was the same implicit > explicit discrepancy measured concurrently at age 9. The overall pattern suggests that the appearance of depressive symptoms in children is associated with discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem and not just lower levels of implicit self-esteem or lower levels of explicit self-esteem taken alone. It is the direction and discrepancy across time that is particularly informative, such that discrepancies between early implicit representations and later explicit reports of self-worth reflect a developmental pathway associated with elevated risk for depressive symptoms. Taken altogether, this study illustrates the benefits of combining work in developmental, child-clinical, and social psychology to provide a more complete view of the developing child. We believe that combining implicit and explicit measures of self-esteem across developmental time points can be used to examine early markers of depression in children at younger ages than typically possible with explicit measures alone.
References77
Newest
#1Ella Daniel (TAU: Tel Aviv University)H-Index: 13
#2Michelle Rodrigues (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 3
Last. Jennifer Jenkins (U of T: University of Toronto)H-Index: 67
view all 3 authors...
: Within family sibling clustering of internalizing problems is examined during the early childhood period. Sibling clustering, the ongoing sibling similarity in internalizing problems, may be a result of heritability of internalizing problems, as well as shared environmental effects. Clustering may also result from the time-varying influence of sibling socialization, where 1 sibling is teaching or modeling internalizing problems to the other sibling. We compared a traditional cross-lagged panel...
3 CitationsSource
OBJECTIVE: Screening protocols that rely on a single informant are inadequate in predicting pediatric depression. Multi-informant and risk factor screening approaches are potentially more sensitive methods for identifying depression risk, but the incremental validity of these protocols has not been adequately tested. Using a translational analytic approach and multimethod, longitudinal study design, we simultaneously tested several multi-indicator approaches to depression screening to identify a...
7 CitationsSource
#1Dario Cvencek (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 11
#2Stephanie A. Fryberg (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 24
Last. Andrew N. Meltzoff (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 112
view all 4 authors...
Minority and majority elementary school students from a Native American reservation (N = 188; K–fifth grade; 5- to 10-year-olds) completed tests of academic self-concepts and self-esteem. School grades, attendance, and classroom behavior were collected. Both minority and majority students exhibited positive self-esteem. Minority students demonstrated lower academic self-concepts and lower achievement than majority students. Two age-related patterns emerged. First, minority students had lower aca...
34 CitationsSource
#1Bridget A. Makol (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 9
#2Antonio J. Polo (DePaul University)H-Index: 18
Depression is one of the most common mental health problems among U.S. adolescents, particularly among Latinos. Parent-child ratings of the presence and severity of child depressive symptoms show only low-to-moderate agreement. However, research has failed to examine discrepancies in populations with the highest levels of unmet need and little is known about patterns and predictors of parent-child agreement in ratings of depressive symptoms among ethnic minority families in community settings. U...
11 CitationsSource
#1Emily M. Becker-Haimes (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 12
#2Amanda Jensen-Doss (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 22
Last. Golda S. Ginsburg (University of Connecticut Health Center)H-Index: 67
view all 5 authors...
Greater parent–youth disagreement on youth symptomatology is associated with a host of factors (e.g., parental psychopathology, family functioning) that might impede treatment. Parent–youth disagreement may represent an indicator of treatment prognosis. Using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study, this study used polynomial regression and longitudinal growth modeling to examine whether parent–youth agreement prior to and throughout treatment predicted treatment outcomes (anxiet...
27 CitationsSource
#1Michelle A. Harris (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 8
#2M. Brent Donnellan (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 76
Last. Kali H. Trzesniewski (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 37
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACTThis article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with ...
28 CitationsSource
#1Sander Thomaes (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 26
#2Eddie Brummelman (Stanford University)H-Index: 15
Last. Constantine Sedikides (University of Southampton)H-Index: 109
view all 3 authors...
This research aimed to examine whether and why children hold favorable self-conceptions (total N = 882 Dutch children, ages 8–12). Surveys (Studies 1–2) showed that children report strongly favorable self-conceptions. For example, when describing themselves on an open-ended measure, children mainly provided positive self-conceptions—about four times more than neutral self-conceptions, and about 11 times more than negative self-conceptions. Experiments (Studies 3–4) demonstrated that children rep...
18 CitationsSource
#1Andrei Cimpian (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 26
#2Matthew D. Hammond (Victoria University of Wellington)H-Index: 15
Last. Grace Corry (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts—specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4–7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to pe...
14 CitationsSource
#1Esther J. CalzadaH-Index: 21
#2R. Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 6
Last. Laurie Miller Brotman (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 27
view all 4 authors...
This study examined mother- and teacher-rated internalizing behaviors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms) among young children using longitudinal data from a community sample of 661 Mexican and Dominican families and tested a conceptual model in which parenting (mother's socialization messages and parenting practices) predicted child internalizing problems 12 months later. Children evidenced elevated levels of mother-rated anxiety at both time points. Findings also supported t...
24 CitationsSource
#2Markus PawelzikH-Index: 5
Last. Julius Kuhl (University of Osnabrück)H-Index: 54
view all 4 authors...
Objective Implicit self-esteem, which is based on associative learning processes, is considered to be constituted earlier in life than explicit, verbalized self-esteem. While depressed individuals report negative explicit self-esteem, research has predominantly demonstrated equivalent levels of implicit self-esteem of depressed and healthy individuals. We further illuminate this finding by theorizing and empirically demonstrating that chronically depressed individuals show particularly low level...
8 CitationsSource
Cited By1
Newest
#1Azure Reid-Russell (Harvard University)
#2Adam Bryant Miller (UNC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)H-Index: 17
Last. Katie A. McLaughlin (Harvard University)H-Index: 93
view all 5 authors...
Identifying the potential pathways linking childhood abuse to depression and suicidal ideation is critical for developing effective interventions. This study investigated implicit self-esteem-unconscious valenced self-evaluation-as a potential pathway linking childhood abuse with depression and suicidal ideation. A sample of youth aged 8-16 years (N = 240) completed a self-esteem Implicit Association Test (IAT) and assessments of abuse exposure, and psychopathology symptoms, including depression...
Source