Preliminary application of 3D-printed individualised guiding templates for total hip arthroplasty in Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D)-printed individualised guiding templates in total hip arthroplasty (THA) for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). METHODS 12 hips in 12 patients with Crowe type IV DDH were treated with THA. A 3D digital model of the pelvis and lower limbs was reconstructed using the computed tomography data of the patients. Preoperative surgical simulations were performed to determine the most suitable surgical planning, including femoral osteotomy and prosthesis placement. Based on the ideal surgical planning, individualised guiding templates were designed by software, manufactured using a 3D printer, and used in acetabulum reconstruction and femoral osteotomy during surgery. RESULTS 12 patients were followed up for an average of 72.42 months (range 38-135 months). During surgery, the guiding template for each case was matched to the bony markers of the acetabulum and proximal femur. Preoperative and follow-up Harris hip scores were 34.2 ± 3.7 and 85.2 ± 4.2; leg length discrepancy, 51.5 ± 6.5 mm and 10.2 ± 1.5 mm; and visual analogue scale scores, 6.2 ± 0.8 and 1.3 ± 0.3, respectively, with statistical difference. Shortened deformity and claudication of the affected limb were obviously improved after surgery. However, 1 patient had artificial hip dislocation 2 weeks after surgery, and another patient had sciatic nerve traction injury, both of whom recovered after physical treatment. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative surgical simulation and 3D-printed individualised guiding templates can fulfil surgeon-specific requirements for the treatment of Crowe type IV DDH. Accurate THA can be achieved using 3D-printed individualised templates, which provide a new personalised surgical plan for the precise positioning and orientation of acetabular reconstruction and femoral osteotomy.