# Generation of Spin Defects in Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Published on Jul 20, 2020in ACS Photonics7.529
· DOI :10.1021/ACSPHOTONICS.0C00614
Mehran Kianinia21
Estimated H-index: 21
,
Simon J. U. White4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 2 AuthorsIgor Aharonovich57
Estimated H-index: 57
Sources
Abstract
Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride offers intriguing opportunities for advanced studies of light–matter interaction at the nanoscale, specifically for realizations in quantum nanophotonics. Here, we demonstrate the generation of optically addressable spin defects based on the negatively charged boron vacancy (VB–) center. We show that these centers can be created in exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride using a variety of focused ion beams (nitrogen, xenon, and argon). Using a combination of laser and resonant microwave excitation, we carry out optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements, which reveal a zero-field ground state splitting for the defect of ∼3.46 GHz. We also perform photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements to elucidate the photophysical properties of the VB– centers. Our results are important for advanced quantum and nanophotonics realizations involving manipulation and readout of spin defects in hexagonal boron nitride.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
5 Authors
8 Authors (Elana Urbach, ..., Mikhail D. Lukin)
1992
2 Authors
References46
#2G. Barcza (CAS: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)H-Index: 6
Last. Adam Gali (BME: Budapest University of Technology and Economics)H-Index: 61
view all 8 authors...
Highly correlated orbitals coupled with phonons in two-dimension are identified for paramagnetic and optically active boron vacancy in hexagonal boron nitride by first principles methods which are responsible for recently observed optically detected magnetic resonance signal. Here, we report ab initio analysis of the correlated electronic structure of this center by density matrix renormalization group and Kohn-Sham density functional theory methods. By establishing the nature of the bright and ...
#1Je-Hyung Kim (UNIST: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)H-Index: 18
#2Shahriar Aghaeimeibodi (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 11
Last. Edo Waks (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 45
view all 5 authors...
The goal of integrated quantum photonics is to combine components for the generation, manipulation, and detection of nonclassical light in a phase-stable and efficient platform. Solid-state quantum emitters have recently reached outstanding performance as single-photon sources. In parallel, photonic integrated circuits have been advanced to the point that thousands of components can be controlled on a chip with high efficiency and phase stability. Consequently, researchers are now beginning to c...
#1Jonathan M. KindemH-Index: 14
#2Andrei Ruskuc (California Institute of Technology)H-Index: 4
Last. Andrei Faraon (California Institute of Technology)H-Index: 57
view all 6 authors...
Distributing entanglement over long distances using optical networks is an intriguing macroscopic quantum phenomenon with applications in quantum systems for advanced computing and secure communication1,2. Building quantum networks requires scalable quantum light–matter interfaces1 based on atoms3, ions4 or other optically addressable qubits. Solid-state emitters5, such as quantum dots and defects in diamond or silicon carbide6–10, have emerged as promising candidates for such interfaces. So far...
#1Mihir K. Bhaskar (Harvard University)H-Index: 15
#2Ralf Riedinger (Harvard University)H-Index: 9
Last. Mikhail D. Lukin (Harvard University)H-Index: 158
view all 11 authors...
The ability to communicate quantum information over long distances is of central importance in quantum science and engineering1. Although some applications of quantum communication such as secure quantum key distribution2,3 are already being successfully deployed4–7, their range is currently limited by photon losses and cannot be extended using straightforward measure-and-repeat strategies without compromising unconditional security8. Alternatively, quantum repeaters9, which utilize intermediate...
#1Andreas Gottscholl (University of Würzburg)H-Index: 6
#2Mehran Kianinia (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 21
Last. Vladimir Dyakonov (University of Würzburg)H-Index: 78
view all 12 authors...
Optically addressable spins in wide-bandgap semiconductors are a promising platform for exploring quantum phenomena. While colour centres in three-dimensional crystals such as diamond and silicon carbide were studied in detail, they were not observed experimentally in two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we report spin-dependent processes in the 2D material hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We identify fluorescence lines associated with a particular defect, the negatively charged boron vacancy (...
#1J. H. Bodey (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 5
#2Robert Stockill (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 9
Last. Mete Atatüre (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 52
view all 10 authors...
Quantum control of solid-state spin qubits typically involves pulses in the microwave domain, drawing from the well-developed toolbox of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Driving a solid-state spin by optical means offers a high-speed alternative, which in the presence of limited spin coherence makes it the preferred approach for high-fidelity quantum control. Bringing the full versatility of magnetic spin resonance to the optical domain requires full phase and amplitude control of the optical fi...
#1Yang Xia (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 12
#2Quanwei Li (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 5
Last. Xiang Zhang (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 177
view all 8 authors...
Single photon emitters (SPEs) are critical building blocks needed for quantum science and technology. For practical applications, room-temperature solid-state platforms are critically demanded. To scale up quantum information processing using, for example, wavelength division multiplexing quantum key distribution, a large tuning range beyond emission line width of single photon energy is required. Stark effect can tune the single photon energy by an electric field. However, it has been achieved ...
#1Nicholas V. Proscia (The Graduate Center, CUNY)H-Index: 7
#2Robert Collison (CCNY: City College of New York)H-Index: 2
Last. Vinod M. Menon (The Graduate Center, CUNY)H-Index: 35
view all 4 authors...
Cooperative phenomena stemming from radiation-field-mediated coupling between individual quantum emitters are presently attracting broad interest for on-chip photonic quantum memories and long-range entanglement. Common to these applications is the generation of electromagnetic modes over macroscopic distances. Much research, however, is still needed before such systems can be deployed in the form of practical devices, starting with the investigation of alternate physical platforms. Quantum emit...
#1Jonathan M. KindemH-Index: 14
#2Andrei RuskucH-Index: 4
Last. Andrei Faraon (California Institute of Technology)H-Index: 57
view all 6 authors...
Quantum networks based on optically addressable spin qubits promise to enable secure communication, distributed quantum computing, and tests of fundamental physics. Scaling up quantum networks based on solid-state luminescent centers requires coherent spin and optical transitions coupled to photonic resonators. Here we investigate single \mathrm{{}^{171}Yb^{3+}}ions in yttrium orthovanadate coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. These ions possess optical and spin transitions that are first-order ...
#1Joshua D. Caldwell (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 40
#2Igor Aharonovich (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 57
Last. Dimitri Basov (Columbia University)H-Index: 86
view all 6 authors...
For more than seven decades, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been employed as an inert, thermally stable engineering ceramic; since 2010, it has also been used as the optimal substrate for graphene in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Recent research has revealed that hBN exhibits a unique combination of optical properties that enable novel (nano) photonic functionalities. Specifically, hBN is a natural hyperbolic material in the mid-IR range, in which photonic material options are sp...
Cited By32
#1Xiao-Jie Wang (THU: Tsinghua University)
#2Hong-Hua Fang (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 40
Last. Hong-Bo Sun (THU: Tsinghua University)H-Index: 89
view all 4 authors...
#1Chi Li (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 15
#2Johannes E. Fröch (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 13
Last. Igor Aharonovich (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 57
view all 7 authors...
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is gaining interest for potential applications in integrated quantum nanophotonics. Yet, to establish hBN as an integrated photonic platform several cornerstones must be established, including the integration and coupling of quantum emitters to photonic waveguides. Supported by simulations, we study the approach of monolithic integration, which is expected to have coupling efficiencies that are 4 times higher than those of a conventional hybrid stacking strategy. We...
#1Daan M. Arroo (London Centre for Nanotechnology)H-Index: 3
#2Neil McN. AlfordH-Index: 38
Last. Jonathan D. Breeze (London Centre for Nanotechnology)
view all 3 authors...
The first solid-state masers to operate at room-temperature and ambient air-pressure were recently demonstrated using optically pumped spin-triplet states as the gain medium. In this Perspective, we briefly review the previous state-of-the-art in cryogenic solid-state masers and then discuss the development of the room-temperature solid-state maser: from the organic pentacene pulsed maser to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy continuous-wave maser. We characterize the operation of these masers as cohe...
#1Yifeng Chen (NUS: National University of Singapore)H-Index: 9
#2Su Ying QuekH-Index: 38
#1Xingyu Gao (Purdue University)H-Index: 19
#2Boyang JiangH-Index: 3
Last. Yong P. ChenH-Index: 64
view all 12 authors...
The recently discovered spin defects in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), a layered van der Waals material, have great potential in quantum sensing. However, the photoluminescence and the contrast of the optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of hBN spin defects are relatively low so far, which limits their sensitivity. Here we report a record-high ODMR contrast of 46\%at room temperature, and simultaneous enhancement of the photoluminescence of hBN spin defects by up to 17-fold by the sur...
#5M. Nguyen (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 180
#10Igor Aharonovich (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 57
Color centers in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are becoming an increasingly important building block for quantum photonic applications. Herein, we demonstrate the efficient coupling of recently discovered spin defects in hBN to purposely designed bullseye cavities. We show that the all monolithic hBN cavity system exhibits an order of magnitude enhancement in the emission of the coupled boron vacancy spin defects. In addition, by comparative finite difference time domain modelling, we shed light...
#1Noah Mendelson (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 11
#2Ritika Ritika (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 3
Last. Seyed Sepehr Mohajerani (Stevens Institute of Technology)
view all 14 authors...
Spin defects in hexagonal boron nitride, and specifically the negatively charged boron vacancy (VB) centres, are emerging candidates for quantum sensing. However, the VB defects suffer from low quantum efficiency and as a result exhibit weak photoluminescence. In this work, we demonstrate a scalable approach to dramatically enhance the VB- emission by coupling to a plasmonic gap cavity. The plasmonic cavity is composed of a flat gold surface and a silver cube, with few-layer hBN flakes positione...
Single photon emitter (SPE) sources are important building blocks for photonics-based quantum technologies. Recently, the highly bright and versatile SPEs from the two-dimensional insulator material hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have attracted significant research interest. However, due to the variability of emitter species and properties, an exact correlation between the underlying atomistic structures and their photo-physical properties is still lacking. In this work, we study six boron vacanc...
#1K. G. Scheuer (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 1
#2Graham J. Hornig (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 3
Last. Ray G. DeCorby (U of A: University of Alberta)H-Index: 18
view all 3 authors...
We present a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) polymer-assisted transfer technique and discuss subtleties about the process. We then demonstrate localized emission from strained regions of the film draped over features on a prepatterned substrate. Notably, we provide insight into the brightness distribution of these emitters and show that the brightest emission is clearly localized to the underlyin­g substrate features rather than unintentional wrinkles present in the hBN film. Our results aide in t...
#1Andreas Gottscholl (University of Würzburg)H-Index: 6
#2Matthias Diez (University of Würzburg)H-Index: 3
Last. Vladimir Dyakonov (University of Würzburg)H-Index: 78
view all 10 authors...
Spin defects in solid-state materials are strong candidate systems for quantum information technology and sensing applications. Here we explore in details the recently discovered negatively charged boron vacancies (VB-) in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and demonstrate their use as atomic scale sensors for temperature, magnetic fields and externally applied pressure. These applications are possible due to the high-spin triplet ground state and bright spin-dependent photoluminescence of the VB-. S...