A complete time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the European butterflies.

Published on Jun 4, 2020in ZooKeys1.137
· DOI :10.3897/ZOOKEYS.938.50878
Martin Wiemers22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ),
Nicolas Chazot8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 2 AuthorsNiklas Wahlberg65
Estimated H-index: 65
With the aim of supporting ecological analyses in butterflies, the third most species-rich superfamily of Lepidoptera, this paper presents the first time-calibrated phylogeny of all 496 extant butterfly species in Europe, including 18 very localised endemics for which no public DNA sequences had been available previously. It is based on a concatenated alignment of the mitochondrial gene COI and up to eleven nuclear gene fragments, using Bayesian inferences of phylogeny. To avoid analytical biases that could result from our region-focussed sampling, our European tree was grafted upon a global genus-level backbone butterfly phylogeny for analyses. In addition to a consensus tree, the posterior distribution of trees and the fully concatenated alignment are provided for future analyses. Altogether a complete phylogenetic framework of European butterflies for use by the ecological and evolutionary communities is presented.
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