“Green”, innovative, versatile and efficient carbon materials from polyphenolic plant extracts

Published on Oct 15, 2020in Carbon9.594
· DOI :10.1016/J.CARBON.2020.05.053
Alain Celzard68
Estimated H-index: 68
(University of Lorraine),
Vanessa Fierro62
Estimated H-index: 62
(University of Lorraine)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Tannins are polyphenolic molecules of great industrial interest, not only for themselves but also as bio-based precursors for multiple carbonaceous materials with extremely diverse structures, textures and potential applications. In recent years, extensive work has been devoted to these new, predominantly porous carbons, and to their properties. It was therefore time to collect the main results in this invited review, whose objective is to show how a single, inexpensive, non-toxic and commercially available renewable resource can lead to such a wide range of different carbons. Cellular carbons, ordered or disordered mesoporous carbons, carbon gels and vitreous carbons, among others, are presented herein through their textures, morphologies and applications. We show that some of these tannin-derived materials are truly model materials, in the sense of excellent control of their structure. Therefore, they could be successfully used to verify the applicability of certain laws of physics to these carbons, or to observe their limits, for the first time. We end this article with a quick overview of the studies still underway in this area.
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Ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) are produced by an easy, fast, and green surfactant-water-assisted mechanochemical mesostructuration (SWAMM) method, using only tannin, water, and Pluronic F127 as raw materials. OMCs are physically activated with CO2 to increase their surface area from ∼500 to ∼2000 m2 g–1 while maintaining the mesoporosity fairly unaltered, which allow studying the effect of the micropore size distribution on the performance of supercapacitors both in aqueous and organic elect...
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