A weather data analysis method to mitigate and prevent plastic shrinkage cracking

Published on Aug 30, 2020in Construction and Building Materials6.141
路 DOI :10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2020.119066
Gerrit M. Moelich4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Stellenbosch University),
Riaan Combrinck12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Stellenbosch University)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Placing fresh concrete in high evaporation conditions can increase the permeability and risk of plastic shrinkage cracking in concrete elements. Prevention measures can be time-consuming and expensive and are often neglected or incorrectly applied. This study proposes a data analysis method to identify the best time for concrete placement, most effective active curing measures, limits on weather condition for concrete placement and adequate testing conditions from location-specific weather data to reduce and mitigate the adverse effects of extreme weather concreting. The aim of this study is to characterise the evaporativity of a region and identify common trends that may be useful for planning concrete projects. The method can be applied to weather data from any location to produce more specific plastic shrinkage crack prevention and extreme weather concreting guidelines. To show the potential of this method, it is applied to four geographically and meteorologically different locations. The selected locations have a hot and dry climate, but the method can also be applied to a cold and dry climate which can, in some cases, produce even higher evaporation rates. The results indicate that for the selected locations specific active curing measures should be rigidly enforced throughout the year and that additional passive prevention measures are required in summer months. The necessity for additional passive prevention can be significantly mitigated by selecting a placement time with a lower evaporation rate.
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
2017
3 Authors (Nabil Bella, ..., Aissa Asroun)
References49
Newest
#1M. Kayondo (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
#2Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
Last. William P. Boshoff (University of Pretoria)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Plastic cracking is probably one of the earliest defects for concrete structures, and is capable of reducing a structure鈥檚 durability and service life if not prevented. Over the last 60鈥痽ears, researchers have attempted to unravel the complex nature of mechanisms leading to plastic cracking of concrete. The main driving mechanisms of plastic cracking have been found to be settlement of solid particles, bleeding, evaporation, capillary action, as well as surface finishing. These, in comb...
Source
#1Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
#2M. Kayondo (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
Last. William P. Boshoff (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 17
view all 5 authors...
Abstract Plastic shrinkage cracking (PSC) is one of the earliest possible defects that can potentially ruin the performance of concrete structures with large exposed surfaces. PSC is mainly attributed to tensile stresses arising in concrete due to a combination of capillary pressure, and restraints provided by reinforcement and formwork. The adoption and use of several admixtures in modern-day concrete has been known to alter properties of both the fresh and hardened concrete. In this research, ...
Source
#1C. Ishee (Florida Department of Transportation)H-Index: 1
#2S. Surana (UCT: University of Cape Town)H-Index: 1
Abstract Hot weather concreting necessitates due considerations in concrete mix design and placement. The high evaporative losses and high temperatures, which are characteristic of hot weather conditions, can introduce microstructural inhomogeneity and cracking in the concrete at an early age. Proper care is essential not only in the concrete placing operations but also in the selection of materials to achieve the required plastic and hardened properties of concrete, and to avoid excessive tempe...
Source
#1Gerhard Olivier (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 2
#2Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
Last. William P. Boshoff (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
Abstract This research attempts to further add onto the existing knowledge-base of the utilisation of nano-silica in concrete by understanding its influence on plastic shrinkage in concrete, a subject with hardly any specific literature available. The results of extensive experimentation reveal that the adoption of nano-silica in concrete mixes should be cautiously undertaken, as it behaves in such a way to cause acceleration of the mechanisms of plastic shrinkage. This research has further been...
Source
#1Didier Snoeck (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 33
#2Leo L Pel (TU/e: Eindhoven University of Technology)H-Index: 36
Last. N. De Belie (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 45
view all 3 authors...
At early ages, a problem of plastic shrinkage can arise when a cement paste is subjected to harsh drying conditions during hardening. SuperAbsorbent Polymers (SAPs) are a promising admixture to mitigate shrinkage in cement pastes. By introducing internal curing by means of the stored mixing water in the SAPs, the plastic shrinkage can be partially mitigated, next to the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage during setting of the cement paste. The kinetics of water release by the SAPs towards the ce...
Source
#1Pengfei Zhao (Concordia University)H-Index: 1
#2Attila M. Zsaki (Concordia University)H-Index: 6
Last. Michelle Nokken (Concordia University)H-Index: 11
view all 3 authors...
Fresh concrete exposed to a drying environment is susceptible to plastic shrinkage cracking, which could result in negative impacts on concrete durability. In the current ASTM standard, plastic shrinkage cracking is evaluated by the average crack width measured at 24 hours after concrete placement, considering that the traditional crack measurement tools cannot be used on fresh concrete. In this project, a non-contact strain measurement technique based on digital image correlation (DIC) was appl...
Source
#1Sadegh Ghourchian (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 9
#2Mateusz Wyrzykowski (Empa: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology)H-Index: 27
Last. Pietro Lura (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 52
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The occurrence of plastic shrinkage cracking in fresh concrete may significantly compromise its service life. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the crack width with appropriate, efficient and effective methods. This study is dedicated to comparing the ability of passive mitigation methods including: Shrinkage Reducing Admixtures (SRA), accelerators based on Calcium Silicate Hydrate seeding agents and curing compounds, in controlling the plastic shrinkage cracking in the drying state....
Source
#1Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
#2Lourens Steyl (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 2
Last. William P. Boshoff (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Settlement and shrinkage cracking occurs in plastic concrete once cast up to around the final setting time. This paper reports on the influence of element depth and surface finishing operations on the cracking of plastic concrete. Deeper concrete elements are shown to have less severe shrinkage cracking when no settlement cracking is present, while when combined with settlement cracking at similar cover depths the cracking is more severe in deeper concrete. Surface finishing operations ...
Source
#1Moghul Sirajuddin (Indian Institute of Technology Madras)H-Index: 1
#2Ravindra Gettu (Indian Institute of Technology Madras)H-Index: 27
In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of mineral admixtures for high performance and durable concrete. Plastic shrinkage cracking in such concretes is a serious concern in large surface area/volume applications. The present study has two objectives: firstly, to investigate the influence of incorporating fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the susceptibility to such cracking; and secondly, to assess the techniques, such as fibre and shrinkage reducing admixtu...
Source
#1Duy Nguyen (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 10
#2Vinh T. N. Dao (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 42
Last. Pietro Lura (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 52
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Proper knowledge of tensile properties of concrete from very early ages is essential for effective control of not only early-age cracking but also of residual stress due to restrained early-age deformation as well as for demolding and handling of young concrete members in the precast industry. Despite significant past research, such knowledge is currently inadequate and based on experimental data with questionable reliability, due mainly to the considerable challenges in testing early-a...
Source
Cited By6
Newest
#1Gerrit M. Moelich (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
#2Jacques Kruger (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 9
Last. Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Providing additional water to the hydrating cementitious particles is essential to achieve the optimal mechanical performance of the low w/b concrete mixes preferred for 3D printing. This study incorporates superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and additional water in 3D printed concrete (3DPC) to promote the hydration process through delayed internal water release. The study shows that a retentive SAP modifies the rheological development by absorbing the pore fluid for a short period...
Source
#1Gerrit M. Moelich (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
#2P.J. Kruger (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 1
Last. Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null 3D printed concrete exhibits a high magnitude and rate of plastic shrinkage (early age drying-induced shrinkage) compared to conventional cast concrete. This study investigated if restraining this shrinkage adversely affects the long-term durability and mechanical performance. Shrinkage was restrained by inserting reinforcement-like rods into the fresh concrete and exposing the specimen to a moderate evaporation rate. The interlayer bond strength, permeability and ion penetrat...
Source
#1Hanghua Zhang (Tongji University)H-Index: 1
#2Jianzhuang Xiao (Tongji University)H-Index: 45
Source
#1Gerrit M. Moelich (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
#2J.E. van Zyl (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 3
Last. Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
Abstract null null Plastic shrinkage cracking (PSC) in concrete is related to the amount and rate of free pore water loss due to evaporation. This study investigates the influence of solar radiation on evaporation, the concrete temperature, plastic shrinkage and cracking. Literature suggests that exposure to solar radiation can either: increase the concrete temperature and, consequently, increase the rate of tensile strength gain resulting in less severe PSC or can increase the concrete temperat...
Source
#1Hassan Ziari (IUST: Iran University of Science and Technology)H-Index: 17
#2Hassan Fazaeli (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 9
Last. Mohammad Ali Ziari (UT: University of Tehran)
view all 4 authors...
Since environmental factors at pavement construction sites are usually changed, the behavior of plastic shrinkage cracking, which is a common type of distress in concrete pavement, needs to be assessed to avoid deterioration and apply a more appropriate preventive method. This study evaluates the effects of different ambient temperature (30, 35, and 40聽掳C), relative humidity of the air (20, 45, and 70%), and wind speed (18, 24, and 30聽km/h) on the characteristics of plastic shrinkage cracking di...
Source
#1Gerrit M. Moelich (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 4
#2Jacques Kruger (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 9
Last. Riaan Combrinck (Stellenbosch University)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
Abstract In concrete, early age pore water evaporation results in volumetric shrinkage that, when restrained, can cause plastic shrinkage cracking (PSC). 3D printed concrete (3DPC) is vulnerable to PSC due to a lack of formwork, minimal bleeding water, low aggregate to binder ratio and high quantities of fines in the mixture. A novel experimental method was developed to determine the PSC risk, evaluating the efficacy of PSC prevention measures and understanding the behaviour of PSC in early age ...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.