Expanded View of PAHs: Identifying Especially Harmful Constituents of Bituminous Coal Smoke.

Published on Apr 16, 2020in Environmental Health Perspectives9.031
· DOI :10.1289/EHP6343
Nate Seltenrich12
Estimated H-index: 12
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Abstract
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#1Roel Vermeulen (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 87
#2George S. Downward (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 14
Last. Boris Reiss (UA: University of Arizona)H-Index: 17
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Background: Lung cancer rates among never-smoking women in Xuanwei and Fuyuan in China are among the highest in the world and have been attributed to the domestic use of smoky (bituminous) coal for...
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Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced “smoky” coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area...
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#1George S. Downward (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 14
#2Wei Hu (HHS: United States Department of Health and Human Services)H-Index: 27
Last. Roel Vermeulen (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 87
view all 12 authors...
Black carbon (BC) emissions from solid fuel combustion are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and are important drivers of climate change. We studied BC measurements, approximated by particulate matter (PM2.5 ) absorbance, in rural Yunnan province, China, whose residents use a variety of solid fuels for cooking and heating including bituminous and anthracite coal, and wood. Measurements were taken over two consecutive 24-h periods from 163 households in 30 villages. PM2.5 absorban...
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#1Jan T. Andersson (WWU: University of Münster)H-Index: 35
#2Christine Achten (WWU: University of Münster)H-Index: 18
The 16 EPA PAHs have played an exceptionally large role above all in environmental and analytical sciences in the last 40 years, but now there are good reasons to question their utility in many circumstances even though their use is so established and comfortable. Here we review the reasons why the list has been so successful and why sometimes it is seen as less relevant. Three groups of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are missing: larger and highly relevant PAHs, alkylated PACs, and compoun...
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Little is written or published about where EPA's 16 PAH Priority Pollutants came from or how and why these particular compounds were selected as representatives of PAHs to regulate. Now, over thirty years later questions are being asked whether some of these compounds are still useful or whether others might be better. Environmental analysis today is very different from the way it was at the time of this list’s selection. The present is often linked to the past; thus, in order to evaluate the cu...
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#1George S. Downward (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 14
#2Wei HuH-Index: 27
Last. Roel VermeulenH-Index: 87
view all 10 authors...
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from burning “smoky” (bituminous) coal has been implicated as a cause of the high lung cancer incidence in the counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Little is known about variations in PAH exposure from throughout the region nor how fuel source and stove design affects exposure. Indoor and personal PAH exposure resulting from solid fuel combustion in Xuanwei and Fuyuan was investigated using repeated 24 h particle bound and gas-phase PAH measu...
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#1George S. Downward (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 14
#2Wei Hu (HHS: United States Department of Health and Human Services)H-Index: 27
Last. Roel Vermeulen (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 87
view all 12 authors...
article i nfo Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates inthecountry.Thishasbeenassociatedwiththedomesticcombustionofbituminouscoal(referredtoas "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among smoky coal users has been observed, suggesting heterogeneity in fuel source composition and/or combustion characteristics. Research thus far has in- dicated that smoky coal emits high levels of polycyclic...
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#10Qing Lan (HHS: United States Department of Health and Human Services)H-Index: 84
Objective To estimate the risk of lung cancer associated with the use of different types of coal for household cooking and heating. Setting Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China. Design Retrospective cohort study (follow-up 1976-96) comparing mortality from lung cancer between lifelong users of “smoky coal” (bituminous) and “smokeless coal” (anthracite). Participants 27 310 individuals using smoky coal and 9962 individuals using smokeless coal during their entire life. Main outcome measures Pri...
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#1Linwei Tian (LBNL: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)H-Index: 54
#2Donald Lucas (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 1
Last. Catherine P. Koshland (PolyU: Hong Kong Polytechnic University)H-Index: 1
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An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO2...
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#1R. S. Braga (State University of Campinas)H-Index: 7
#2P.M.V.B. Barone (UFJF: Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora)H-Index: 8
Last. Douglas S. Galvao (State University of Campinas)H-Index: 61
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules that can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power vary in a large range, from the very strong carcinogens to the inactive ones. Recently a new methodology was proposed (using the topological simple Huckel theory) to group and identify PAHs carcinogenic activity in terms of very simple rules based on the concept of electronic local density of states over specific molecular regions. In the present work...
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