Breast Milk, a Source of Beneficial Microbes and Associated Benefits for Infant Health.

Published on Apr 9, 2020in Nutrients4.546
· DOI :10.3390/NU12041039
Katriona Lyons2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Teagasc),
C. Anthony Ryan30
Estimated H-index: 30
(UCC: University College Cork)
+ 2 AuthorsCatherine Stanton108
Estimated H-index: 108
(Teagasc)
Sources
Abstract
Human breast milk is considered the optimum feeding regime for newborn infants due to its ability to provide complete nutrition and many bioactive health factors. Breast feeding is associated with improved infant health and immune development, less incidences of gastrointestinal disease and lower mortality rates than formula fed infants. As well as providing fundamental nutrients to the growing infant, breast milk is a source of commensal bacteria which further enhance infant health by preventing pathogen adhesion and promoting gut colonisation of beneficial microbes. While breast milk was initially considered a sterile fluid and microbes isolated were considered contaminants, it is now widely accepted that breast milk is home to its own unique microbiome. The origins of bacteria in breast milk have been subject to much debate, however, the possibility of an entero-mammary pathway allowing for transfer of microbes from maternal gut to the mammary gland is one potential pathway. Human milk derived strains can be regarded as potential probiotics; therefore, many studies have focused on isolating strains from milk for subsequent use in infant health and nutrition markets. This review aims to discuss mammary gland development in preparation for lactation as well as explore the microbial composition and origins of the human milk microbiota with a focus on probiotic development.
Download
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
20202.74PLOS ONE
18 Citations
2019
1 Citations
References273
Newest
#1Shirin Moossavi (Tehran University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 14
#2Meghan B. Azad (UM: University of Manitoba)H-Index: 32
ABSTRACTHuman milk contains a diverse community of bacteria. The growing appreciation of commensal microbes and increasing availability of high-throughput technology has set the stage for a theory-...
24 CitationsSource
#1Pelayo Salinas-de-León (Charles Darwin Foundation)H-Index: 3
#2Patricia Marti-Puig (Charles Darwin Foundation)H-Index: 1
Last. Leigh Marsh (University of Southampton)H-Index: 13
view all 19 authors...
The deep sea represents the largest and least explored biome on the planet. Despite the iconic status of the Galapagos Islands and being considered one of the most pristine locations on earth, the deep-sea benthic ecosystems of the archipelago are virtually unexplored in comparison to their shallow-water counterparts. In 2015, we embarked on a multi-disciplinary scientific expedition to conduct the first systematic characterization of deep-sea benthic invertebrate communities of the Galapagos, a...
16 CitationsSource
#1Nai Yang Fu (NUS: National University of Singapore)H-Index: 23
#2Emma Nolan (Francis Crick Institute)H-Index: 7
Last. Jane E. Visvader (WEHI: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research)H-Index: 77
view all 4 authors...
The mammary gland is a highly dynamic organ that undergoes profound changes within its epithelium during puberty and the reproductive cycle. These changes are fuelled by dedicated stem and progenit...
27 CitationsSource
#1Schuyler A. Chambers (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 4
#2Steven D. Townsend (Vandy: Vanderbilt University)H-Index: 18
Abstract The design and practicality of carbohydrate based bioorthogonal probes is integral to understanding the chemical interactions of carbohydrates within cellular systems. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a structurally diverse class of carbohydrates that possess strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep, GBS). This work highlights the design, synthesis, and retained biological activity of several HMO bioorthogonal probes within GBS, a first in clas...
3 CitationsSource
#1Melissa A. E. Lawson (Norwich Research Park)H-Index: 4
#1Melissa A.E. Lawson (Norwich Research Park)H-Index: 14
Last. Lindsay J. Hall (Norwich Research Park)H-Index: 22
view all 8 authors...
Diet-microbe interactions play an important role in modulating the early-life microbiota, with Bifidobacterium strains and species dominating the gut of breast-fed infants. Here, we sought to explore how infant diet drives distinct bifidobacterial community composition and dynamics within individual infant ecosystems. Genomic characterisation of 19 strains isolated from breast-fed infants revealed a diverse genomic architecture enriched in carbohydrate metabolism genes, which was distinct to eac...
58 CitationsSource
#1Na Li (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 6
#2Bing Pang (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 8
Last. Junling Shi (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 22
view all 9 authors...
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens greatly challenges the development of new drugs. Probiotics with the ability to inhibit MDR pathogens offer advantages over chemical antibiotics and drugs due to increased safety and fewer side effects. This study reports that Lactobacillus rhamnosus SHA113 (isolated from breast milk) significantly inhibited MDR Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo. MDR E. coli caused more severe inflammatory effects. TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased, wh...
13 CitationsSource
#1Kattayoun Kordy (SC: University of Southern California)H-Index: 5
#2Thaidra Gaufin (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 1
Last. Grace M. Aldrovandi (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 56
view all 11 authors...
Increasing evidence supports the importance of the breast milk microbiome in seeding the infant gut. However, the origin of bacteria in milk and the process of milk microbe-mediated seeding of infant intestine need further elucidation. Presumed sources of bacteria in milk include locations of mother-infant and mother-environment interactions. We investigate the role of mother-infant interaction on breast milk microbes. Shotgun metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified milk microbes of...
18 CitationsSource
#1Chloe A. Douglas (University of Adelaide)H-Index: 1
#1Chloe A. Douglas (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 1
Last. Geraint B. Rogers (Flinders University)H-Index: 43
view all 6 authors...
In addition to providing nutritional and bioactive factors necessary for infant development, human breast milk contains bacteria that contribute to the establishment of commensal microbiota in the infant. However, the composition of this bacterial community differs considerably between studies. We hypothesised that bacterial DNA extraction methodology from breast milk samples are a substantial contributor to these inter-study differences. We tested this hypothesis by applying five widely employe...
19 CitationsSource
#1Chanettee Jamyuang (Kasetsart University)H-Index: 1
#2Phanphen Phoonlapdacha (Kasetsart University)H-Index: 1
Last. Massalin Nakphaichit (Kasetsart University)H-Index: 6
view all 6 authors...
Several studies have reported a complex microbial community in human breast milk. This community impacts the shape of the infant gut microbiota and consequently impacts host health. Lactobacillus is an important probiotic and has many applications in the functional food industry. This study isolated and evaluated the potential probiotic bacteria from human milk. Two Lactobacillus species, L. plantarum and L. pentosus, were isolated from the breast milk of Thai women. L. pentosus HM04-22, L. pent...
5 CitationsSource
#1Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 13
#2Haobin Zhao (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 12
Last. Junling Shi (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 22
view all 11 authors...
Abstract Lactobacilli rhamnosus has been characterized as a probiotic and plays an important role in human health by stimulating the supplement of nutrients, preventing the colonization of pathogens, and influencing the immune system. This study investigated the anticancer activity of the three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains SHA111, SHA112, and SHA113 isolated from human breast milk. The cell-free supernatant of a liquid culture of the three strains showed excellent antioxidant activities again...
17 CitationsSource
Cited By32
Newest
Source
#1Belén Pastor-Villaescusa (UCO: University of Córdoba (Spain))
#2Ruth Blanco-RojoH-Index: 1
Last. Mónica OlivaresH-Index: 36
view all 0 authors...
Reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal infections (GIs) that occur at early stages to mitigate hospitalizations and treatments with adverse effects is a promising strategy for providing well-being to infants and their families. This systematic review and meta-analysis explores whether the early administration of Limosilactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 might be effective as a preventive therapy for GIs. We reviewed the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating th...
Source
#1David J. Sanders (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 1
#2Saskia Inniss (UCL: University College London)
Last. Andrew M. Smith (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 28
view all 5 authors...
The microbiome plays an important role in maintaining human health. Despite multiple factors being attributed to the shaping of the human microbiome, extrinsic factors such diet and use of medications including antibiotics appear to dominate. Mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gut, are highly adapted to be able to tolerate a large population of microorganisms while still being able to produce a rapid and effective immune response against infection. The intestinal microbiome is not functionall...
Source
#1Evon M. DeBose-Scarlett (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 2
#2Marion M Bendixen (UF: University of Florida)
Last. Leslie A. Parker (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 15
view all 0 authors...
Abstract null null Mother's own milk provides personalized nutrition and immune protection to the developing infant. The presence of healthy microbes plays an important role in the infant's gut by programming the microbiota and excluding potential pathogens. This review describes the important components in mother's own milk that contribute to its superiority for infant nutrition and suggest potential strategies to replicate these factors in alternative feedings when sufficient milk is unavailab...
Source
#1Marta Szukalska (Poznan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 1
#2T.A. Merritt (LLU: Loma Linda University)H-Index: 6
Last. Ewa Florek (Poznan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 19
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Several reports confirm the deleterious effects of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) resulting in changes in the composition of breast milk. The aim of our study was to compare the levels of selected essential, as well as, toxic metals found in colostrum (collected at day 1± 2 post-birth) and mature milk (1 month ± 7 days post-birth) of nonsmoking women (n = 52) compared to those found in women who smoke tobacco (n = 51) and women exposed to second-hand smoke durin...
1 CitationsSource
#1F. MengH-Index: 1
#2T. Uniacke-LoweH-Index: 11
Last. Alan L. KellyH-Index: 75
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Background Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrition for babies up to six months of age, as it provides individualized, specific and abundant nutritional compounds, as well as immunological protection. Currently, there is wide interest in studying human milk because of this key role, as well as identification of biologically active compounds. In addition, human milk banks play an important role in supplying donor human milk to infants, especially premature infants, in...
Source
#1Ethel D. Weld (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 6
#2Theodore C. Bailey (Greater Baltimore Medical Center)H-Index: 1
Last. Catriona Waitt (MUK: Makerere University)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Pregnant, or potentially pregnant women have historically been excluded from clinical trials of new medications. However, it is increasingly recognised that it is imperative to generate evidence from the population in whom the drugs are likely to be used in order to inform safe, evidence-based shared clinical decision making. Reluctance by researchers and regulators to perform such studies often relates to concerns about risk, particularly to the fetus. However, this must be offset against the r...
Source
#1Kristina Hase (MHH: Hannover Medical School)
#2Laura Stahmer (MHH: Hannover Medical School)
Last. Anibh M. Das (MHH: Hannover Medical School)H-Index: 28
view all 6 authors...
Breast feeding is regarded as the preferred nutrition modality for children during the first few months of life. It not only furthers growth and development but also is supposed to impact later life. The first 1000 days are regarded as a critical window for development, even beyond infancy. The physiological basis underlying this beneficial effect is not clear. Sirtuins are important regulatory proteins of metabolism and are supposed to play a critical role in ageing and longevity as well as in ...
Source
Source
#1Sadaf H. Kazmi (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 1
#2Sarah Berman (NYU: New York University)
Last. Elena V. Wachtel (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 6
view all 4 authors...
BACKGROUND Preterm infants are at high risk for metabolic bone disease (MBD). Analysis of donor breast milk (DBM) shows lower levels of macronutrients compared to mother's own milk (MOM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MBD, rate of postnatal growth, and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in infants fed predominantly MOM vs. DBM. METHODS Retrospective observational study of infants born 70% of feeds with either MOM or DBM by 34 weeks CA. MBD was assessed us...
Source