Ice-templated porous tungsten and tungsten carbide inspired by natural wood

Published on May 15, 2020in Journal of Materials Science & Technology6.155
· DOI :10.1016/J.JMST.2019.10.021
Yuan Zhang53
Estimated H-index: 53
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Guoqi Tan6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 8 AuthorsRobert O. Ritchie132
Estimated H-index: 132
(University of California, Berkeley)
Abstract The structures of tungsten and tungsten carbide scaffolds play a key role in determining the properties of their infiltrated composites for multifunctional applications. However, it is challenging to construct and control the architectures by means of self-assembly in W/WC systems because of their large densities. Here we present the development of unidirectionally porous architectures, with high porosities exceeding 65%, for W and WC scaffolds which in many respects reproduce the design motif of natural wood using a direct ice-templating technique. This was achieved by adjusting the viscosities of suspensions to retard sedimentation during freezing. The processing, structural characteristics and mechanical properties of the resulting scaffolds were investigated with the correlations between them explored. Quantitative relationships were established to describe their strengths based on the mechanics of cellular solids by taking into account both inter- and intra-lamellar pores. The fracture mechanisms were also identified, especially in light of the porosity. This study extends the effectiveness of the ice-templating technique for systems with large densities or particle sizes. It further provides preforms for developing new nature-inspired multifunctional materials, as represented by W/WC-Cu composites.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
5 Authors (Dipankar Ghosh, ..., Valere Kamaha)
22 Citations
2 Citations
#1Zengqian Liu (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 17
#2Zhefeng Zhang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Last. Robert O. Ritchie (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 132
view all 3 authors...
20 CitationsSource
#1Xingmin Liu (Technische Universität Darmstadt)H-Index: 11
#2Nan Chai (Technische Universität Darmstadt)H-Index: 1
Last. Ralf Riedel (NPU: Northwestern Polytechnical University)H-Index: 79
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Ultra-light carboxylic functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs-COOH) and Ti3C2 MXene hybrids modified sodium alginate (CNTs/Ti3C2-SA) based composite foams were prepared through ice-templated freeze-drying method. The microstructure of the synthesized CNTs/Ti3C2 hybrids and CNTs/Ti3C2-SA foams is characterized by the presence of CNTs inserted between MXene layers which prevents their restacking. The resultant CNTs/Ti3C2 hybrids exhibit a unique sandwich-like hierarchical stru...
18 CitationsSource
#1Tian Li (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 25
#2Yao Zhai (CU: University of Colorado Boulder)H-Index: 12
Last. Liangbing Hu (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 125
view all 19 authors...
Reducing human reliance on energy-inefficient cooling methods such as air conditioning would have a large impact on the global energy landscape. By a process of complete delignification and densification of wood, we developed a structural material with a mechanical strength of 404.3 megapascals, more than eight times that of natural wood. The cellulose nanofibers in our engineered material backscatter solar radiation and emit strongly in mid-infrared wavelengths, resulting in continuous subambie...
233 CitationsSource
#1Longchao Zhuo (NCEM: National Center for Electron Microscopy)H-Index: 15
#2Zhao ZhaoH-Index: 3
Last. Feng Wang (NCEM: National Center for Electron Microscopy)H-Index: 5
view all 7 authors...
Abstract To achieve a combined enhancement of mechanical properties with improved arc erosion resistance, a novel strategy of two-step ball-milling and hot-press sintering under hydrogen for fabricating hierarchical W-Nb-Cu composite reinforced with in-situ nanocrystalline fcc-Nb was advocated. Characteristics including phase constituents, microstructure, mechanical properties and arc erosion behavior of the W-3 wt.%Nb-30 wt.%Cu composite have been systematically investigated. The crystal struct...
14 CitationsSource
#1André Röthlisberger (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 4
#2Sandra Häberli (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 3
Last. Ralph Spolenak (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 47
view all 6 authors...
Controlling anisotropy in self-assembled structures enables engineering of materials with highly directional response. Here, we harness the anisotropic growth of ice walls in a thermal gradient to assemble an anisotropic refractory metal structure, which is then infiltrated with Cu to make a composite. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate on the specific example of tungsten-copper composites the effect of anisotropy on the electrical and mechanical properties. The measured strength ...
8 CitationsSource
#1Mingyang Zhang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 3
#1Mingyang Zhang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 1
Last. Robert O. Ritchie (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 132
view all 9 authors...
Crustacean exoskeletons demonstrate exceptional mechanical efficiency owing to their intricate architectures. However, the translation of their underlying structural design to man-made material systems represents a challenge. Here we report the “top-down” fabrication using freeze casting of silicon carbide hybrid composites which contain a compliant phase and mimic the structure of crustacean exoskeletons. The composites display laminated interwoven nanoarchitectures that replicate the main stru...
8 CitationsSource
#1Daria I. TishkevichH-Index: 24
#2S.S. GrabchikovH-Index: 11
Last. A.V. Trukhanov (SUSU: South Ural State University)H-Index: 29
view all 11 authors...
Abstract The problem of increasing reliability of semiconductor devices under extreme ionizing radiation (electrons, protons, gamma radiation etc.) is relevant. Uses of WCu composite materials with high density and reduced mass-dimension characteristics offer a very attractive alternative to lead protection due to more environmentally friendly composite. W85Cu15 and W75Cu25 composites were obtained by solid-phase synthesis. XRD data showed that the main lines of the WCu spectrum correspond to th...
32 CitationsSource
#1Stephen K. Wilke (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 6
#2David C. Dunand (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 82
Abstract Cyclical oxidation/reduction behavior of iron-based powders and porous pellets is of great interest for iron-air batteries, steam-iron, and chemical looping processes, but extended cycling is limited by degradation via sintering or pulverization. To address these problems, we use directional freeze casting to fabricate porous iron foams, consisting of colonies of parallel iron lamellae and open channels of sufficient width (20–40 and 20–50 μm, respectively) to accommodate iron/iron oxid...
17 CitationsSource
#1M. Dias (IST: Instituto Superior Técnico)H-Index: 8
#1Miguel Sales Dias (IST: Instituto Superior Técnico)H-Index: 11
Last. Eduardo Alves (IST: Instituto Superior Técnico)H-Index: 61
view all 10 authors...
Abstract WC-Cu cermets have been devised for thermal barriers between the plasma facing tungsten tiles and the copper-based heat sink in the first wall of nuclear fusion reactors. Composite materials with 50 and 75 v/v% WC have been prepared by hot pressing at 1333 and 1423 K with pressures of 37 and 47 MPa, respectively. Microstructural changes have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The materials consolidat...
6 CitationsSource
#1Michaela Eder (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 20
#2Shahrouz Amini (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 17
Last. Peter Fratzl (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 119
view all 3 authors...
The bulk of Earth’s biological materials consist of few base substances—essentially proteins, polysaccharides, and minerals—that assemble into large varieties of structures. Multifunctionality arises naturally from this structural complexity: An example is the combination of rigidity and flexibility in protein-based teeth of the squid sucker ring. Other examples are time-delayed actuation in plant seed pods triggered by environmental signals, such as fire and water, and surface nanostructures th...
121 CitationsSource
Cited By10
#1Yuan Zhang (Center for Advanced Materials)H-Index: 1
#2Guoqi Tan (Center for Advanced Materials)H-Index: 2
Last. Longchao ZhuoH-Index: 15
view all 12 authors...
Abstract null null The microscopic Bouligand-type architectures of fish scales demonstrate a notable efficiency in enhancing the damage tolerance of materials; nevertheless, it is challenging to reproduce in metals. Here bioinspired tungsten-copper composites with different Bouligand-type architectures mimicking fish scales were fabricated by infiltrating a copper melt into woven contextures of tungsten fibers. These composites exhibit a synergetic enhancement in both strength and ductility at r...
1 CitationsSource
#1Yanlin Wang (USTB: University of Science and Technology Beijing)H-Index: 4
#2Longchao Zhuo (USTB: University of Science and Technology Beijing)
Last. Enhuai YinH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Tungsten‑copper (W Cu) composites/pseudo alloys with excellent properties are extremely desirable for applications as electrode materials, functional graded materials, electronic packaging materials, electrical contacts, as well as other aerospace and military candidates. This paper reviewed the recent progress on fabrication techniques, microstructure and property regulation that ensure high-performance W Cu alloys. Besides the well-developed traditional powder metallurgy inc...
#1S.M. Liang (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 3
#2H.M. Ji (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 3
Last. Xiaowu Li (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Abstract To explore the differences in mechanical behavior of nacre between shells that live in different water depths, the microstructures, phase composition and related mechanical properties of nacre under indentation, three-point bending and shear tests in deep-sea Nautilus and freshwater Cristaria plicata shells were systematically investigated. It is found that the nacreous structure in Nautilus shell exhibits an outstanding combination of high strength and high toughness compared with that...
#1Kefeng Gao (Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology)
#2Faheng Wang (Center for Advanced Materials)H-Index: 1
Last. Zhefeng Zhang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 53
view all 10 authors...
Abstract Porous gypsum materials are of notable significance and demonstrate a broad application in construction and biomedical engineering; nevertheless, it is challenging to simultaneously enhance their mechanical and functional properties. Here by replicating the designs of natural wood, new gypsum materials containing unidirectional micro-pores were fabricated by employing a modified ice-templating technique. The retention of ice-templated architectures was realized based on the hydration-in...
#1Satyanarayana Sabat (NITR: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela)
#2Soumavo Sikder (NITR: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela)
Last. Arindam Paul (NITR: National Institute of Technology, Rourkela)
view all 4 authors...
Abstract In this article, we examine the effects of two different platelet sizes (4 and 8 μm respectively) on the architecture of freeze-cast sintered alumina scaffolds as a function of a wide range of freezing velocities, 5 – 57 μm s-1. The microstructural evolution along the freezing direction has been studied a-priori, explained on the basis of ice physics and the interaction of ceramic platelets with the advancing freezing front. An array of microstructures was produced to delve into the rol...
#1Fuqiang WanH-Index: 1
#2Wenxuan Wang (WUT: Wuhan University of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Zhengyi FuH-Index: 31
view all 6 authors...
Abstract As one of the most delicate bioprocesses in nature, biosilicification is closely related to biosilica with various morphologies, and has provided abundant inspiration to materials synthesis. In the present study, to explore the biosilica formation process and fabricate silica with an exquisite microstructure for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, a bacterial phage (M13) is used as a biotemplate to synthesize silica with diverse morphologies: cylinders, hexagonal prisms, assemblies of...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sashanka Akurati (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 3
#2Anton Jansson (NCSU: North Carolina State University)
Last. Dipankar Ghosh (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 20
view all 4 authors...
Abstract The ice-templating technique enables the fabrication of multilayered ceramic-based composite materials. Very little is known on the inelastic deformation mechanisms that evolve in this class of composite materials under` compressive loading conditions and cause macroscopic failure. The current study is motivated by a recent study by the authors, which revealed that the uniaxial compressive response of ice-templated ceramic–polymer composites is strongly dependent on the loading directio...
1 CitationsSource
#1Faheng Wang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 1
#2Yuanbo Du (HIT: Harbin Institute of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Zhefeng Zhang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 53
view all 7 authors...
Taking lessons from nature offers an increasing promise toward improved performance in man-made materials. Here new cement materials with unidirectionally porous architectures are developed by replicating the designs of natural wood using a simplified ice-templating technique in light of the retention of ice-templated architectures by utilizing the self-hardening nature of cement. The wood-like cement exhibits higher strengths at equal densities than other porous cement-based materials along wit...
1 CitationsSource
#1D. Jiao (Center for Advanced Materials)
#1Da Jiao (Center for Advanced Materials)H-Index: 1
Last. Zhefeng Zhang (USTC: University of Science and Technology of China)H-Index: 53
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Replicating the architecture of natural nacre has become an important approach for enhancing the damage tolerance of man-made materials. Nevertheless, this is principally limited to systems composed of chemically different constituents and demonstrates a difficulty in realizing structural hierarchy at multiple length-scales. Here a proof of concept is presented about the implementation of bioinspired nacre-like designs in a hybrid composite of pure carbon comprising its two basic allotr...
2 CitationsSource
#1Rohan Parai (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 1
#2Tessa Walters (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 1
Last. Dipankar Ghosh (ODU: Old Dominion University)H-Index: 20
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Ice-templating technique enables the synthesis of novel ceramic materials with directional, anisotropic pores, and the templated structure is highly tunable. Another factor that also drives interest in ice-templated ceramics is that for a comparable level of porosity, the uniaxial compressive strength of these materials can be significantly greater in comparison to that of the conventional open-cell foams. However, the strength advantage is significantly reduced in the materials templat...
3 CitationsSource