Leptospirosis: a neglected tropical zoonotic infection of public health importance—an updated review
Published on Jan 2, 2020in European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases2.837
· DOI :10.1007/S10096-019-03797-4
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic and waterborne disease worldwide. It is a neglected, reemerging disease of global public health importance with respect to morbidity and mortality both in humans and animals. Due to negligence, rapid, unplanned urbanization, and poor sanitation, leptospirosis emerges as a leading cause of acute febrile illness in many of the developing countries. Every individual has a risk of getting infected as domestic and wild animals carry leptospires; the at-risk population varies from the healthcare professionals, animal caretakers, farmers and agricultural workers, fishermen, rodent catchers, water sports people, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) personnel, people who volunteer rescue operations in flood-affected areas, sanitary workers, sewage workers, etc. The clinical manifestations of leptospirosis range from flu-like illness to acute kidney failure (AKF), pneumonia, jaundice, pulmonary hemorrhages, etc. But many rare and uncommon clinical manifestations are being reported worldwide. This review will cover all possible updates in leptospirosis from occurrence, transmission, rare clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic measures that are currently available, their advantages and the future perspectives, elaborately. There are less or very few reviews on leptospirosis in recent years. Thus, this work will serve as background knowledge for the current understanding of leptospirosis for researchers. This will provide a detailed analysis of leptospirosis and also help in finding research gaps and areas to focus on regarding future research perspectives.