Oxide coating containing apatite formed on Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy treated by Two-Step Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

Published on Jan 25, 2020in Surface & Coatings Technology3.784
· DOI :10.1016/J.SURFCOAT.2019.125224
Bruno Leandro Pereira5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UFPR: Federal University of Paraná),
Gregory Beilner1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)
+ 7 AuthorsMichael J.D. Nugent13
Estimated H-index: 13
(Athlone Institute of Technology)
Abstract Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive calcium phosphate capable of enhancing the implant/bone connection improving osteoconductivity and osseointegration process. However, the HA presents mechanical properties limiting its application. A good way to resolve this limitation is to combine the excellent biological properties of HA with materials with suitable mechanical behavior, like Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy. The Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy is composted by non-toxic and corrosion-resistant elements, presenting good biological compatibility. In this work, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) (using direct current-DC) was applied in conventional mode and Two-Step PEO aiming to produce a porous coating containing HA. It was not possible to produce a satisfactory coating applying conventional PEO due to successive spalling during the oxidation process. Adding a pretreatment to the conventional PEO changed the process to Two-Step PEO allowing to form a porous coating containing HA. The pretreatment was made by PEO using phosphoric electrolyte to produce a pre-coating. After that, the pre-coating was re-oxidized with calcium/phosphorus electrolyte. The Two-Step oxidized surface presented well-known good characteristics to applications in osseous implant devices such as porous formation, roughness in the micrometrical range, surface containing calcium and phosphorus, bioactive crystalline titanium oxide, and well-adhered HA formation. However, the coating morphology and chemical composition of pre-coating and Two-Step oxidized surfaces were not uniform. The non-uniformity of the Two-Step oxidized surface follows a similar non-uniformity pattern of the pre-coating surface. Two distinct morphologies were identified on the Two-Step oxidized surface: a “velvety morphology” with HA formation and a highly porous morphology. Regarding the Ti-25Nb-25Ta alloy, the Two-Step oxidation produced an adhered coating with porous apatite distribution interspersed with calcium-rich porous oxide.
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