Features of mechanical behavior of EV battery modules under high deformation rate

Published on Oct 1, 2019in Extreme Mechanics Letters4.567
路 DOI :10.1016/J.EML.2019.100550
Sergiy Kalnaus25
Estimated H-index: 25
(ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory),
Hsin Wang45
Estimated H-index: 45
(ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
+ 2 AuthorsAbhijit Sengupta1
Estimated H-index: 1
(United States Department of Transportation)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract We report on changes in material behavior of electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery cell modules when the loading speed increases from quasi-static to high speed (close to 1 m/s). A series of out-of-plane indentation experiments were performed on stacks of pouch cells placed in the specially designed enclosure to represent conditions in battery modules. Over one hundred of large format automotive pouch cells were tested under displacement rates differing by orders of magnitude. The details of internal failure were studied by X-ray tomography (XCT). We observe a shift in the force鈥揹isplacement response from a parabolic behavior characteristic of particulate materials under compression to the response typical of fully dense materials with yield point. This shift is associated with dynamic effects in active materials which result in deep propagation of damage into the battery module, despite the fact that the internal short circuit is triggered when the displacement of the indenter is one half of that under the slow displacement rate.
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References18
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#1Yanyu Chen (University of Louisville)H-Index: 18
#2Shriram Santhanagopalan (NREL: National Renewable Energy Laboratory)H-Index: 26
Last. Yi Ding (United States Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center)H-Index: 1
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Abstract With broad-scale deployment of lithium-ion batteries, mechanical-abuse induced failure events such as short circuits and thermal runaway have made safety a focus of attention in battery design. Most previous studies have focused on quasi-static and low-velocity impact analyses, which could not represent the mechanical behavior of lithium-ion batteries in realistic situations. Here we report a combined experimental and computational study on the dynamic response of lithium-ion pouch cell...
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#1Golriz Kermani (TU: Temple University)H-Index: 4
#2Elham Sahraei (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 20
Use of lithium-ion batteries in transportation necessitates understanding of the cell mechanical response in case of a vehicle accident. Many researchers have access to test equipment to characterize the behavior of cells at low speeds. However, testing batteries at high speeds requires special setups that are not available for many interested parties. In this research, a methodology is proposed for predicting the material response and failure patterns of lithium-ion batteries subjected to high ...
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#1Sergiy Kalnaus (ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)H-Index: 25
#2Hsin Wang (ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)H-Index: 45
Last. Phillip Gorney (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)H-Index: 2
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Abstract When a battery pack is subjected to external mechanical load, i.e. as in the case of crash, the individual cells experience significant deformations leading to the internal short circuit and possibly fire. The current investigation looks into effects of the inactive components (i.e. cooling plates and module protective enclosure) on deformation and failure of individual pouch cells. Experiments on large spherical indentation of electric vehicle battery module with and without such compo...
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#1Sergiy Kalnaus (ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)H-Index: 25
#2Yanli Wang (ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory)H-Index: 15
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Abstract Safe performance of advanced Li-ion batteries relies on integrity of the separator membrane which prevents contact between electrodes of opposite polarity. Current work provides detailed study of mechanical behavior of such membrane. Temperature and strain rate sensitivity of the triple-layer polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE)/polypropylene (PP) porous separator for Li-ion batteries was studied experimentally under controlled temperatures of up to 120掳 (393 K), and strain rates (from ...
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Abstract Deformation of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries has been studied under biaxial tension by using a dome test setup. This deformation mode provides characterization of separator strength under more complex loading conditions, closer representing deformation of an electric vehicle battery during crash event, compared to uniaxial tension or compression. Two polymer separators, Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 were investigated by deformation with spheres of three different diameters. St...
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#1Juner Zhu (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 17
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Abstract We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the dow...
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Abstract To support the development of failure prediction models and improve the crash safety designs of the energy storage system of electric vehicles, a type of battery module consisting of pouch cells for commercial use is tested under impact loading, which is an extreme loading type of mechanical abuse. Using a test matrix designed for modules with 100% SOC, a series of impact tests are performed on a drop tower with various combinations of loading speed, drop mass, orientation of the module...
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Abstract This paper reports on dynamic abuse tests on Li-ion cells, namely investigations on local indentation/intrusion into these cells. Two different types of cells have been investigated, pouch cells and elliptic cells. The elliptic cells were tested in two different states, with and without liquid electrolyte. The cells have been loaded by a hemispherical punch with a diameter of 12.7聽mm with velocities between 0.01聽mm/s and 5000聽mm/s. Intrusion force, intrusion depth and velocity, and cell...
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Abstract Anisotropic mechanical properties were experimentally determined and compared for three types of commercially available Li-ion battery separators: Celgard 2325, Celgard PP2075 dry-processed polymer separators, and DreamWeaver Gold 40 non-woven separator. Significant amount of anisotropy of properties was determined, with the Young's modulus being different by up to a factor of 5 and ultimate strength being different by a factor of 10 between orthogonal directions within a polymer separa...
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Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts
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Abstract null null The safety of electric vehicles under crash event depends on the mechanical behavior of Lithium-ion cells under large deformation at high strain rates. Here, an extensive experimental campaign is performed on large-format pouch cells under out-of-plane indentation with two indenter shapes and speeds ranging from a few millimeters per minute up to ten meters per seconds, spanning six decades of strain rates. It reveals that the displacement at the onset of short circuit decreas...
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