Putting the data before the algorithm in big data addressing personalized healthcare.

Published on Aug 19, 2019
· DOI :10.1038/S41746-019-0157-2
Eli M. Cahan3
Estimated H-index: 3
(NYU: New York University),
Tina Hernandez-Boussard57
Estimated H-index: 57
(Stanford University)
+ 1 AuthorsDaniel L. Rubin70
Estimated H-index: 70
(Stanford University)
Sources
Abstract
Technologies leveraging big data, including predictive algorithms and machine learning, are playing an increasingly important role in the delivery of healthcare. However, evidence indicates that such algorithms have the potential to worsen disparities currently intrinsic to the contemporary healthcare system, including racial biases. Blame for these deficiencies has often been placed on the algorithm—but the underlying training data bears greater responsibility for these errors, as biased outputs are inexorably produced by biased inputs. The utility, equity, and generalizability of predictive models depend on population-representative training data with robust feature sets. So while the conventional paradigm of big data is deductive in nature—clinical decision support—a future model harnesses the potential of big data for inductive reasoning. This may be conceptualized as clinical decision questioning, intended to liberate the human predictive process from preconceived lenses in data solicitation and/or interpretation. Efficacy, representativeness and generalizability are all heightened in this schema. Thus, the possible risks of biased big data arising from the inputs themselves must be acknowledged and addressed. Awareness of data deficiencies, structures for data inclusiveness, strategies for data sanitation, and mechanisms for data correction can help realize the potential of big data for a personalized medicine era. Applied deliberately, these considerations could help mitigate risks of perpetuation of health inequity amidst widespread adoption of novel applications of big data.
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