A Clinician's Guide to Healthy Eating for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Published on Sep 1, 2019in Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes
路 DOI :10.1016/J.MAYOCPIQO.2019.05.001
Vincent A. Pallazola5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Johns Hopkins University),
Dorothy M. Davis2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Johns Hopkins University)
+ 8 AuthorsFrancine K. Welty43
Estimated H-index: 43
(BIDMC: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract Despite continued advances in health care, the cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rate has plateaued in recent years and appears to be trending upward. Poor diet is a leading cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are leading contributors to CVD morbidity and mortality. Although dietary modification is a cornerstone of CVD prevention, implementation in clinical practice is limited by inadequate formal training in nutrition science. In this report, we review the individual components of a heart-healthy diet, evidence-based dietary recommendations, and the impact of diet on CVD risk factor prevention and management. Furthermore, we examine the unique difficulties of dietary counseling in low-socioeconomic-status environments and provide an evidence-based approach to better serve these populations. We utilized PubMed searches in adults with no date restriction with the following search terms: "carbohydrate," "fat," protein," "DASH," "Mediterranean," "plant-based," "vegetarian," "cardiovascular disease," "obesity," "weight loss," "diabetes," "socioeconomic status," and "race." In this review, we demonstrate that patients should focus on implementing a general diet plan that is high in fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nonstarchy vegetables while low in trans-fats, saturated fats, sodium, red meat, refined carbohydrates, and sugar-sweetened beverages. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Mediterranean, and vegetarian diets have the most evidence for CVD prevention. Clinicians should understand the barriers that patients may face in terms of access to healthy dietary choices. Further research is needed to determine the dietary changes that are most economically, socioculturally, and logistically feasible to reduce these barriers. Improvement in diet is a public health priority that can lead to a significant population-level reduction in CVD morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that clinicians understand current dietary practice guidelines and implement evidence-based dietary counseling in those at high risk for CVD.
Download
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
References110
Newest
Source
#1Scott M. GrundyH-Index: 212
#2Neil J. StoneH-Index: 55
Last. Joseph YeboahH-Index: 30
view all 24 authors...
Glenn N. Levine, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair Patrick T. O鈥橤ara, MD, MACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Immediate Past Chair [鈥♀♀[1] Sana M. Al-Khatib, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA Joshua A. Beckman, MD, MS, FAHA Kim K. Birtcher, PharmD, MS, AACC Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD,
Source
Author(s): Arnett, Donna K; Blumenthal, Roger S; Albert, Michelle A; Buroker, Andrew B; Goldberger, Zachary D; Hahn, Ellen J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl D; Khera, Amit; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; McEvoy, J William; Michos, Erin D; Miedema, Michael D; Munoz, Daniel; Smith, Sidney C; Virani, Salim S; Williams, Kim A; Yeboah, Joseph; Ziaeian, Boback
Source
#1Andrew N. Reynolds (University of Otago)H-Index: 9
#2Jim MannH-Index: 89
Last. Lisa Te Morenga (University of Otago)H-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
Summary Background Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses explaining the relationship between carbohydrate quality and health have usually examined a single marker and a limited number of clinical outcomes. We aimed to more precisely quantify the predictive potential of several markers, to determine which markers are most useful, and to establish an evidence base for quantitative recommendations for intakes of dietary fibre. Methods We did a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses ...
Source
#1Yongcheng Ren (SZU: Shenzhen University)H-Index: 19
#2Yu Liu (SZU: Shenzhen University)H-Index: 15
Last. Dongsheng Hu (SZU: Shenzhen University)H-Index: 29
view all 17 authors...
Objective Studies investigating the impact of chocolate consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reached inconsistent conclusions. As such, a quantitative assessment of the dose鈥搑esponse association between chocolate consumption and incident CVD has not been reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the risk of CVD with chocolate consumption. Methods PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published up to 6 June 2018. Restricted cubi...
Source
#1Mahshid Dehghan (Population Health Research Institute)H-Index: 27
#2Andrew Mente (McMaster University)H-Index: 39
Last. Salim Yusuf (Independence University)H-Index: 257
view all 39 authors...
Summary Background Dietary guidelines recommend minimising consumption of whole-fat dairy products, as they are a source of saturated fats and presumed to adversely affect blood lipids and increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. Evidence for this contention is sparse and few data for the effects of dairy consumption on health are available from low-income and middle-income countries. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between total dairy and specific types of dairy products wi...
Source
#1Cara B. Ebbeling (Harvard University)H-Index: 46
#2Henry A. Feldman (Harvard University)H-Index: 90
Last. David S. Ludwig (Harvard University)H-Index: 88
view all 10 authors...
Abstract Objective To determine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate to fat ratio on total energy expenditure. Design Randomized trial. Setting Multicenter collaboration at US two sites, August 2014 to May 2017. Participants 164 adults aged 18-65 years with a body mass index of 25 or more. Interventions After 12% (within 2%) weight loss on a run-in diet, participants were randomly assigned to one of three test diets according to carbohydrate content (high, 60%, n=54; moderate, 40%, n=53;...
Source
#3Caitlin HawleyH-Index: 13
Source
#10Joseph S Salama (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation)H-Index: 4
Summary Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations fr...
Source
#1Rachel K. JohnsonH-Index: 38
#2Alice H. LichtensteinH-Index: 110
Last. Judith Wylie-RosettH-Index: 61
view all 10 authors...
In the United States, 32% of beverages consumed by adults and 19% of beverages consumed by children in 2007 to 2010 contained low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs). Among all foods and beverages containing...
Source
Cited By28
Newest
Objective null Despite guideline consensus that quality of nutrition affects most modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, the implementation of dietary interventions varies considerably in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current existing literature and provide recommendations on best practices for nutrition interventions and future research that support secondary prevention outcomes. null Review methods null The review examines origina...
Source
#1W M Monique Verschuren (Centre for Health Protection)H-Index: 32
#2Jolanda M.A. Boer (Centre for Health Protection)H-Index: 55
Last. Elisabeth H. M. Temme (Centre for Health Protection)H-Index: 27
view all 3 authors...
### Learning objectives A healthy diet is the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention.1 Dietary habits influence cardiovascular risk, through an effect on, for example, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, obesity, inflammation and endothelial function.2 Over the past decades, knowledge about the components of a healthy diet has grown. Since there are few randomised controlled trials, most evidence on diet鈥揹isease relationships comes from prospective cohort studies, with inherent me...
Source
Source
Source
#1Camille Frayna (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)
#2Christoffer Devantier (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)
Last. Joshua M. Polanski (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were developed to reduce or prevent many types of chronic illness, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Healthcare provider recommendations may be influenced by understanding of and adherence to the DGA, which may be incorporated into provider training, medical and dental clinical curricula鈥攁lthough few studies have evaluated adherence to the DGA among dental students. This approved retrospective study of voluntary student responses from a firs...
Source
#4Huiping Yuan (Peking Union Medical College)H-Index: 7
Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. It is also known to be associated with various types of age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer鈥檚 disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The central dogma of molecular biology demonstrates the conversion of DNA to RNA to the encoded protein. These proteins interact to form complex cell signaling pathways, which perform various biological functions. With prolonged exposure to the environment, the ...
Source
#1Jonathan C. Brown (Fort Belvoir Community Hospital)H-Index: 1
#2Thomas E. Gerhardt (Fort Belvoir Community Hospital)H-Index: 1
Last. Edward KwonH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for approximately 610,000 deaths annually (estimated 1 in 4 deaths) and is the leading cause of mortality in the United States.[1] It is the third leading cause of mortality worldwide and is associated with 17.8 million deaths annually.[2][3][4][5] Healthcare services for CAD are estimated to cost greater than 200 billion dollars annually in the United States.[6] While CAD is a significant cause of death and disability, it is preventable. The Framingham Hea...
#1Gang Wu (Lincoln University (New Zealand))H-Index: 108
#2Xiaodan Hui (LU: Lincoln University (Pennsylvania))H-Index: 6
Last. Charles S. Brennan (LU: Lincoln University (Pennsylvania))H-Index: 57
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Spray-drying and freeze-drying strategies were used to obtain novel protein powders from an aqueous combination of sodium caseinate and blackcurrant concentrate. The powders differed in physical and functional properties. The effects of incorporating these different novel protein powders into a cookie recipe at a replacement level of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% were evaluated in relation to the physicochemical and nutritional properties of cookies. Colour, and texture properties of the cookies...
Source
#1Marwa S. Said (Cairo University)H-Index: 1
#2Inas Talaat El Sayed (Cairo University)H-Index: 1
Last. Ghada M. Khafagy (Cairo University)H-Index: 3
view all 4 authors...
INTRODUCTION Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most leading cause of mortality worldwide. Changes in diet can reduce subclinical cardiac injury and inflammation in parallel with reductions of other CVD risk factors. AIM The study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of the DASH diet versus usual healthy dietary advice (HDA) on the estimated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). METHODS It was a prospective interventional nonrandomized controlled study, conducted on 92 part...
Source
#5Richard A. Ferraro (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 4
Abstract Given rapid advancements in medical science, it is often challenging for the busy clinician to remain up-to-date on the fundamental and multifaceted aspects of preventive cardiology and maintain awareness of the latest guidelines applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The 鈥淎merican Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) Top Ten CVD Risk Factors 2021 Update鈥 is a summary document (updated yearly) regarding CVD risk factors. This 鈥淎SPC Top Ten CVD Risk Factors 2021 Upd...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.