Gender differences in occurrence of behavioral and emotional problems at the lower grades of elementary school: Association with developmental and behavioral characteristics at 5 years.

Published on Jun 18, 2019in Brain & Development1.504
· DOI :10.1016/J.BRAINDEV.2019.06.001
Yui Zen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine),
Tomohiro Chiyonobu16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine)
+ 4 AuthorsHajime Hosoi33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine)
Source
Abstract
Abstract Aim We examined whether developmental status and behavioral problems at age five were related to the occurrence of behavioral and emotional problems in the lower grades of elementary school among non-clinical children who did not receive specialized support for developmental problems in early childhood. Methods The participants were 367 (non-clinical: 325) second- and third-grade elementary school children. The mean age at follow-up was 7.63 ( SD =  0.62). Parents completed a questionnaire about their children’s developmental status and behavioral problems during a community health check-up for 5-year-olds. Behavioral and emotional problems at school age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The association between developmental and behavioral characteristics at age five and each of the SDQ subscales at school age was analyzed with logistic regression. Results Hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, and emotional problems at school age were associated with developmental and behavioral factors in 5-year-olds. The problem of hyperactivity/inattention at school age was associated with hyperactivity/inattention in both genders, and significant gender differences were identified. The relationship with hyperactivity at the age of five was significant for boys, whereas the relationship with inattention was only significant for girls. Emotional problems were significantly associated with social behaviors and developmental status at five years of age only in girls. Conclusions It is necessary for clinicians and teachers to consider the relation of developmental and behavioral characteristics to the background of behavioral and emotional problems at school age and to be aware of gender differences.
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