Anti-Inflammatory Role of TAM Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Via Modulating Macrophage Function.

Published on Jan 2, 2019in Molecules and Cells5.034
路 DOI :10.14348/MOLCELLS.2018.0419
Chang Hee Lee2
Estimated H-index: 2
(KU: Korea University),
Taehoon Chun22
Estimated H-index: 22
(KU: Korea University)
Sources
Abstract
: Macrophage is an important innate immune cell that not only initiates inflammatory responses, but also functions in tissue repair and anti-inflammatory responses. Regulating macrophage activity is thus critical to maintain immune homeostasis. Tyro3, Axl, and Mer are integral membrane proteins that constitute TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Growing evidence indicates that TAM family receptors play an important role in anti-inflammatory responses through modulating the function of macrophages. First, macrophages can recognize apoptotic bodies through interaction between TAM family receptors expressed on macrophages and their ligands attached to apoptotic bodies. Without TAM signaling, macrophages cannot clear up apoptotic cells, leading to broad inflammation due to over-activation of immune cells. Second, TAM signaling can prevent chronic activation of macrophages by attenuating inflammatory pathways through particular pattern recognition receptors and cytokine receptors. Third, TAM signaling can induce autophagy which is an important mechanism to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Fourth, TAM signaling can inhibit polarization of M1 macrophages. In this review, we will focus on mechanisms involved in how TAM family of RTKs can modulate function of macrophage associated with anti-inflammatory responses described above. We will also discuss several human diseases related to TAM signaling and potential therapeutic strategies of targeting TAM signaling.
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References63
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: Tyro3, Axl, Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases reduce inflammatory, innate immune responses. We demonstrate that tumor-secreted protein S (Pros1), a Mer/Tyro3 ligand, decreased macrophage M1 cytokine expression in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, tumor cells with CRISPR-based deletion of Pros1 failed to inhibit M1 polarization. Tumor cell-associated Pros1 action was abrogated in macrophages from Mer- and Tyro3- but not Axl-KO mice. In addition, several other murine and human tumor cell lines s...
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Cells send out and receive signals to communicate with other cells. Detecting these signals is largely carried out by proteins called receptors that span the cell surface membrane. These proteins typically have extracellular domains outside of the cell that can bind to specific signaling molecules and an intracellular domain inside the cell that relays the information inwards to trigger a response. Three such receptor proteins are collectively known as the TAM receptors. Each day, many billions ...
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