A retinoid X receptor partial agonist attenuates pulmonary emphysema and airway inflammation.

Published on Jan 3, 2019in Respiratory Research3.924
· DOI :10.1186/S12931-018-0963-0
Daisuke Morichika8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Okayama University),
Nobuaki Miyahara33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Okayama University)
+ 9 AuthorsArihiko Kanehiro25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Okayama University)
Sources
Abstract
Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily that mediate signalling by 9-cis retinoic acid, a vitamin A derivative. RXRs play key roles not only as homodimers but also as heterodimeric partners, e.g., for retinoic acid receptors, vitamin D receptors, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The NR family may also play important roles in the development of emphysema. However, the role of RXRs in the pathogenesis of emphysema is not well defined. We developed a novel RXR partial agonist (NEt-4IB) and investigated its effect and mechanism compared to a full agonist (bexarotene) in a murine model of emphysema. For emphysema induction, BALB/c mice received intraperitoneal cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or intratracheal porcine pancreas elastase (PPE). Treatment with RXR agonists was initiated before or after emphysema induction. Treatment with NEt-4IB significantly suppressed the increase in static lung compliance and emphysematous changes in CSE-induced emphysema and PPE-induced established and progressive emphysema. NEt-4IB significantly suppressed PPE-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation and the levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), C-X-C motif ligand5 (CXCL5), interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17. NEt-4IB also improved the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) imbalance and the reduced anti-oxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. NEt-4IB suppressed PPE-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the airway. Treatment with NEt-4IB and bexarotene significantly suppressed the increase in static lung compliance and emphysematous changes. However, adverse effects of RXR agonists, including hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly, were observed in bexarotene-treated mice but not in NEt-4IB-treated mice. These data suggest that RXRs play crucial roles in emphysema and airway inflammation, and novel partial RXR agonists could be potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PPE- and CSE-induced emphysema.
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