Beneficial effects of Thymus vulgaris extract in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Clinical, histological and cytokine alterations

Published on Jan 1, 2019in Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy4.545
· DOI :10.1016/J.BIOPHA.2018.08.078
Merat Mahmoodi5
Estimated H-index: 5
(MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences),
Fatemeh Ayoobi8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences)
+ 5 AuthorsMojtaba Sankian22
Estimated H-index: 22
(MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract The imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Thymus vulgaris (thyme) as a traditional medicinal plant has been reported to exert antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study evaluated the modulatory effects of Thymus vulgaris on the clinical symptoms, histopathological scores, and the production of some anti-inflammatory (TGF-β, IL-4, and IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17) cytokines in EAE model. EAE was induced by MOG35–55 peptide and mice were treated intra-peritoneally (i.p) with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the control group or thyme extract (50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight, every other day) in thyme-treated EAE groups, from day 0 to +21 of post MOG immunization. Mice were sacrificed at day 22, and splenocytes were isolated and re-stimulated in vitro with MOG in order to measure the cytokine production and proliferation of re-stimulated cells by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and WST-1 reagent, respectively. The clinical symptoms and histopathological scores of the CNS were lower in thyme-treated than EAE control group. Furthermore, the production of IFN-γ and IL-6 by splenocytes was lower in thyme-treated EAE than in the control group. The production of IL-10 and TGF-β increased in mice treated with thyme extract compared to the control group. In this study, we showed for the first time that the immunomodulatory effects of Thymus vulgaris in EAE model. Thus, the possible therapeutic potential of thyme for treatment of MS could be considered in future research.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
24 Citations
5 Citations
References43
Newest
#1Dariush Haghmorad (Semnan University)H-Index: 9
#2Mohammad Mahmoudi (Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services)H-Index: 18
Last. Mahmoud Mahmoudi (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 27
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most abundant central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease, which is due to the reaction of auto reactive T cells with own myelin proteins, leading to physical disorder and paralysis among people suffering the disease. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. This study was designed to reveal the molecular and ...
35 CitationsSource
#1Seyed Ali Ghaffari (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 1
#2Maryam Nemati (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 16
Last. Abdollah Jafarzadeh (Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 26
view all 6 authors...
Background: Interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis performs a prominent role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of IL-17 in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and its relationship with gender, medication, disease forms and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL-23R gene, including rs11209026 and rs1004819.Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from 135 healthy individuals and 135 MS patients. The patients exhibited relapsin...
14 Citations
#1Abdollah JafarzadehH-Index: 26
#2Reyhane Ahangar-Parvin (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 1
Last. Zuhair Mohammad HassanH-Index: 27
view all 7 authors...
Objective: The main function of IL-12 is differentiation of naive T cells intoTh1 cells and TGF-I² is a powerful immunoregulatory cytokine. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have also been reported in some studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-12 and TGF-I² in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin olig...
5 CitationsSource
#1Diogo Lobo-Silva (RMIT: RMIT University)H-Index: 3
#2Guilhermina M. Carriche (IBMC: Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular)H-Index: 3
Last. Margarida Saraiva (IBMC: Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular)H-Index: 27
view all 5 authors...
Background The inflammatory response is critical to fight insults, such as pathogen invasion or tissue damage, but if not resolved often becomes detrimental to the host. A growing body of evidence places non-resolved inflammation at the core of various pathologies, from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases. It is therefore not surprising that the immune system has evolved several regulatory mechanisms to achieve maximum protection in the absence of pathology.
172 CitationsSource
#1Nasser Gholijani (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 9
#2Zahra Amirghofran (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 26
AbstractThymol and carvacrol, two main components of thyme, have several valuable effects on the immune system. This study aims to evaluate the effects of these components on T-helper (TH) cell responses and their subsets in mice immunized with ovalbumin. The effects of these components on: a specific in vivo immune response were evaluated by assessing changes in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH); ex vivo splenocyte proliferative responses were evaluated using a BrdU assay gene expression of c...
24 CitationsSource
#1Michelle Rothaug (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 7
#2Christoph Becker-Pauly (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 27
Last. Stefan Rose-John (CAU: University of Kiel)H-Index: 129
view all 3 authors...
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and in the physiological homeostasis of neural tissue. Profound neuropathological changes, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease are associated with increased IL-6 expression in brain. Increased nocturnal concentrations of serum IL-6 are found in patients with impaired sleep whereas IL-6-deficient mice spend more time in rapid eye movement sleep associated with dre...
181 CitationsSource
#1Nasser Gholijani (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 9
#2Marjan Gharagozloo (IUMS: Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 21
Last. Zahra Amirghofran (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 26
view all 4 authors...
AbstractInflammation is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. This study sought to evaluate the effects of thymol and carvacrol, the main components of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) essential oil, on transcription factors regulating inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 mouse macrophages were examined by real time-PCR for interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene expression in the presence of these compounds. Levels of inducible phospho-nuclear ...
46 CitationsSource
#1Abdollah Jafarzadeh (Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 26
#2Roya Mahdavi (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 3
Last. Hossain-Ali Ebrahimi (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 3
view all 6 authors...
Objectives Interleukin (IL)-33 is a cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-33 concentrations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
16 CitationsSource
#1Nasser Gholijani (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 9
#2Marjan Gharagozloo (IUMS: Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 21
Last. Zahra Amirghofran (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 26
view all 5 authors...
Purpose: Thymol and carvacrol, two main components of thyme, have shown anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of these components on Jurkat leukemia cells as an in vitro T cell model and their molecular mechanisms of activity. Methods: Cells were cultured in the presence of components and subsequently stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/calcium ionophore for evaluating interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production. The activation of T...
23 CitationsSource
Background: IL-17/IL-23 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory properties of ginger are reported in previous studies. Objective: To evaluate the effects of ginger extract on the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 in a model of EAE. Methods: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein and then treated with PBS o...
10 Citations
Cited By8
Newest
#4Jianbo Xiao (University of Vigo)
Source
#1Andrea F. Afonso (University of Aveiro)H-Index: 4
#2Olívia R. Pereira (IPN: Instituto Politécnico Nacional)H-Index: 13
Last. Susana M. Cardoso (University of Aveiro)H-Index: 22
view all 3 authors...
Thymus genus comprises numerous species that are particularly abundant in the West Mediterranean region. A growing body of evidence suggests that many of these species are a rich source of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acids and luteolin glycosides, able to render them potential applications in a range of industrial fields. This review collects the most relevant studies focused on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer of pheno...
6 CitationsSource
#1Hengri Cong (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 2
#2Ming Zhang (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 1
Last. Linlin Yin (Capital Medical University)H-Index: 10
view all 6 authors...
Abstract This study aimed at investigating whether treatment with icariin (ICA) could modulate the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and its potential mechanisms in SJL/J mice. Female SJL/J mice were immunized with PLP139-151 peptide to induce relapse-remitting EAE and the immunized mice were treated with vehicle alone (EAE) or ICA (12.5 or 25 mg/body weights) by gavage daily for 42 days. Compared with the control, the EAE mice developed relapse-remitting EAE and red...
4 CitationsSource
#1Maryam Azimzadeh (UI: University of Isfahan)H-Index: 1
#2Merat Mahmoodi (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 5
Last. Noushin Amirpour (UI: University of Isfahan)H-Index: 6
view all 8 authors...
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelination disease in the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by incomplete endogenous remyelination in the chronic phase. A shift of the balance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines is one of the important markers in the pathogenesis of MS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing interleukin 11 and interleukin 13 (IL-11, 13-hADSCs) on the experimental autoimmune ence...
2 CitationsSource
#1Merat Mahmoodi (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 5
#2Farnaz Sedghy (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 3
Last. Abdollah Jafarzadeh (KMU: Kerman Medical University)H-Index: 26
view all 3 authors...
Background Thymus vulgaris, or thyme belongs to the Lamiaceae family of aromatic plant species and has established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined the association between thyme extract treatment to recovered urinary levels of melatonin, a hormone with neuroprotective effects, in mice induced with EAE. Methods Eight B6 mice induced with EAE were randomized into two groups and exposed to either 50 mg/kg of thyme extract or PBS. After EAE induction, mice were injected i.p ...
#1Lucian Del Fabbro (Universidade Federal do Pampa)H-Index: 11
#2Marcelo Gomes de Gomes (Universidade Federal do Pampa)H-Index: 15
Last. Cristiano Ricardo Jesse (Universidade Federal do Pampa)H-Index: 30
view all 8 authors...
Abstract We investigated the effects of chrysin in the experimental autoimmune encephomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis (MS) animal model. EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35–55 peptide in C57BL/6 mice. Chrysin reduced weight loss, attenuated clinical signs and blunted the EAE-induced increase in histone deacetylase (HDCA) activity, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as in the EAE-induced decrease in histone ...
8 CitationsSource
#1Xiao Li (Beijing University of Chinese Medicine)H-Index: 3
#2Ting He (Beijing University of Chinese Medicine)H-Index: 4
Last. Gaimei She (Beijing University of Chinese Medicine)H-Index: 6
view all 11 authors...
: The genus Thymus (Lamiaceae) comprises about 214 species throughout the world, mainly found in North Africa, Europe, and temperate Asia zone. They are traditionally used as food additives and folk medicines. This review comprehensively summarizes information about traditional uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of this genus and provides recommendations for future investigations. All information was gathered from scientific databases including Google Scholar, Sci-Finder, Web...
14 CitationsSource
#1Leila Mohtashami (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 3
#2Abolfazl Shakeri (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 15
Last. Behjat Javadi (MUMS: Mashhad University of Medical Sciences)H-Index: 10
view all 3 authors...
6 CitationsSource