Beyond depression: The impact of executive functioning on quality of life in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Epilepsy Research2.208
· DOI :10.1016/J.EPLEPSYRES.2018.11.004
Abstract Objective Individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). Although comorbid depression is one of the most recognized predictors of poor QoL in TLE, impairments in verbal memory (VM) and executive functioning (EF), have also been identified as risk factors, independent of other biological and psychosocial factors. In this study, we examine the contribution of depression, VM, and EF to QoL in 52 well-characterized medically-refractory TLE patients. Methods Quality of life was assessed with the Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31) questionnaire and depression symptomatology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Tests of VM included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition, Logical Memory and Verbal Paired Associates subtests. Tests of EF included the D-KEFS Category Switching and Color Word Interference Tests, and the Trail Making Test. Using these measures, a principal component (PC) was derived for VM and for EF. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the unique contributions of BDI-II Score, VM PC, and EF PC to the QOLIE-31 Total Score, while controlling for important clinical and demographic variables. Post-hoc analyses were also performed to examine the contribution of each variable to specific QOLIE subscales. Results Of the clinical variables, only number of antiepileptic drugs contributed to QOLIE scores. As expected, severity of depressive symptoms was the most significant predictor of QOLIE Total Score, explaining 43.4% of the variance in total QoL. The VM PC did not contribute to the QOLIE Total Score. Rather, our EF PC emerged as an important predictor of QoL, explaining an additional 5% of the variance, after controlling for clinical variables, depression severity, and VM performance. Significance These findings suggest that a combination of clinical, affective, and cognitive factors influence QoL in patients with TLE. Designing interventions with careful attention to depression and EF may be needed to optimize QoL in patients with refractory TLE and potentially other epilepsy syndromes.