Experiencing vicarious rejection in the wake of the 2016 presidential election

Published on Feb 1, 2020in Group Processes & Intergroup Relations3.129
· DOI :10.1177/1368430218798702
Heather M. Claypool19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Miami University),
Alejandro Trujillo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Miami University)
+ 1 AuthorsSteven G. Young21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CUNY: City University of New York)
Sources
Abstract
Presidential elections in the United States pit two (or more) candidates against each other. Voters elect one and reject the others. This work tested the hypothesis that supporters of a losing pres...
References23
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#1Vesna Marinović (University of Cologne)H-Index: 5
#2Sebastian Wahl (University of Cologne)H-Index: 3
Last. Birgit Träuble (University of Cologne)H-Index: 11
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Seeking proximity to another person immediately expresses affiliative intentions. These are highly relevant after experiencing social exclusion. Through a novel task, the current study investigated the relation between proximity and observed ostracism during early childhood. A sample of 64 children (Mage = 58 months) first watched priming videos either depicting ostracism or not. Subsequently, children saw four seats of varying distances from an interactant’s seat and chose where to sit...
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#1Selma Carolin Rudert (University of Basel)H-Index: 8
#2Andrew H. Hales (Purdue University)H-Index: 10
Last. Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
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Following ostracism, individuals are highly sensitive to social cues. Here we investigate whether and when minimal acknowledgment can improve need satisfaction following an ostracism experience. In four studies, participants were either ostracized during Cyberball (Studies 1 and 2) or through a novel apartment-application paradigm (Studies 3 and 4). To signal acknowledgment following ostracism, participants were either thrown a ball a few times at the end of the Cyberball game, or received a mes...
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#1Chris H.J. Hartgerink (Tilburg University)H-Index: 11
#2Ilja van Beest (Tilburg University)H-Index: 24
Last. Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
view all 4 authors...
We examined 120 Cyberball studies (N = 11,869) to determine the effect size of ostracism and conditions under which the effect may be reversed, eliminated, or small. Our analyses showed that (1) the average ostracism effect is large (d > |1.4|) and (2) generalizes across structural aspects (number of players, ostracism duration, number of tosses, type of needs scale), sampling aspects (gender, age, country), and types of dependent measure (interpersonal, intrapersonal, fundamental needs). Furthe...
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#1Ruiting Song (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 2
#2Harriet Over (Ebor: University of York)H-Index: 24
Last. Malinda Carpenter (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 64
view all 3 authors...
Humans have a strong need to belong. Thus, when signs of ostracism are detected, adults often feel motivated to affiliate with others in order to reestablish their social connections. This study investigated the importance of affiliation to young children following priming with ostracism. Fourand 5-year-old children were primed with either ostracism or control videos and their understanding of, and responses to, the videos were measured. Results showed that children were able to report that ther...
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#1Brian A. Nosek (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 91
#2Jeffrey R. Spies (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 13
Last. Matt Motyl (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 23
view all 3 authors...
An academic scientist’s professional success depends on publishing. Publishing norms emphasize novel, positive results. As such, disciplinary incentives encourage design, analysis, and reporting decisions that elicit positive results and ignore negative results. Prior reports demonstrate how these incentives inflate the rate of false effects in published science. When incentives favor novelty over replication, false results persist in the literature unchallenged, reducing efficiency in knowledge...
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#1Joseph E. Beeney (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 17
#2Robert G. Franklin (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 16
Last. Reginald B. Adams (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 44
view all 4 authors...
Empathy is generally thought of as the ability to share the emotional experiences of others. In scientific terms, this is usually operationalized as an ability to vicariously feel others' mental and emotional experiences. Supporting this account, research demonstrates that watching others experience physical pain activates similar brain regions to the actual experience of pain itself. First-hand experience of social rejection also activates this network. The current work extends these findings b...
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#1Carrie L. Masten (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 25
#2Sylvia A. Morelli (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 15
Last. Naomi I. Eisenberger (UCLA: University of California, Los Angeles)H-Index: 71
view all 3 authors...
article i nfo Article history: Despite empathy's importance for promoting social interactions, neuroimaging research has largely overlooked empathy during social experiences. Here, we examined neural activity during empathy for social exclusion and assessed how empathy-related neural processes might relate to subsequent prosocial behavior toward the excluded victim. During an fMRI scan, participants observed one person being excluded by two others, and afterwards sent emails to each of these 'pe...
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#1Steven G. Young (Miami University)H-Index: 21
#2Michael J. Bernstein (Miami University)H-Index: 25
Last. Heather M. Claypool (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
The current research was designed to examine how the outcome of the 2008 United States presidential election would affect participants' feelings of being rejected. Specifically, we set out to test whether participants who favored the losing candidate would feel as if they had been personally rejected. Additionally, we were interested in whether these feelings of rejection would be predicted by the extent to which participants included the major party candidates in their own self-representation, ...
Source
#1Eric D. Wesselmann (Purdue University)H-Index: 25
#2Danielle Bagg (Purdue University)H-Index: 1
Last. Kipling D. Williams (Purdue University)H-Index: 79
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Ostracism—being ignored and excluded—is a painful experience with negative psychological consequences. Social psychologists ( Kerr and Levine, 2008 , Spoor and Williams, 2007 ) argue humans have an evolved system for automatically detecting cues of ostracism and exclusion. Detection elicits pain and threats to fundamental needs. We hypothesize simply observing ostracism will cause negative affect and need threat in the observer. Participants observed a three-player Cyberball game; a tar...
Source
#1Harriet Over (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 24
#2Malinda Carpenter (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 64
Human beings are intensely social creatures and, as such, devote significant time and energy to creating and maintaining affiliative bonds with group members. Nevertheless, social relations sometimes collapse and individuals experience exclusion from the group. Fortunately for adults, they are able to use behavioral strategies such as mimicry to reduce their social exclusion. Here we test whether children, too, increase their imitation following an experience of ostracism. Given humans’ profound...
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Cited By1
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#1Jessica Salvatore (Sweet Briar College)H-Index: 7
#2Lauren Jones (Sweet Briar College)
Last. Cora Dunlap (Sweet Briar College)
view all 6 authors...
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