Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision-Making Process

Published on Nov 16, 2018
Verónica Juárez Ramos2
Estimated H-index: 2
(International University, Cambodia)
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Abstract
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We examine the mitigation of two cognitive biases through a video game.We conducted an experiment (N=708) to compare the game to an instructional video.The game was compared to outcomes testing knowledge and mitigation of the biases.Explicit instruction improved familiarity and knowledge of the biases more than implicit.More exposure through repeated play enhanced learning. Heuristics can interfere with information processing and hinder decision-making when more systematic processes that might l...
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#1Jenny Yiend ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 33
#2Charlotte Parnes ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 1
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In eating disorders (EDs), interest commonly focuses on eating, weight, and shape rather than on beliefs. In this study, we investigated the importance of negative self-beliefs in EDs by examining whether manipulating those beliefs would elicit symptom-relevant change. The technique cognitive-bias modification is ideal for this purpose because it permits experimental manipulation of beliefs. Using content derived from the clinical literature, we applied cognitive-bias modification to a sample of...
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#1Carl SymborskiH-Index: 4
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The current study was designed to address the following research question: Can a computer game provide an effective mechanism for training adults to identify and mitigate their cognitive biases? Human decision making relies on a variety of simple heuristic decision rules that can be quick and effective mental shortcuts when making judgments. However, these heuristics can also lead to irrational thinking and problem-solving in ways that produce errors or illogicality, known as cognitive biases. T...
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The capacity to identify cheaters is essential for maintaining balanced social relationships, yet humans have been shown to be generally poor deception detectors. In fact, a plethora of empirical findings holds that individuals are only slightly better than chance when discerning lies from truths. Here, we report 5 experiments showing that judges' ability to detect deception greatly increases after periods of unconscious processing. Specifically, judges who were kept from consciously deliberatin...
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The past decade has witnessed a surge in research on training paradigms aimed at directly influencing cognitive processes in addiction and other psychopathology. Broadly, two avenues have been explored: In the first, the aim was to change maladaptive cognitive motivational biases (cognitive bias modification); in the second, the aim was to increase general control processes (e.g., working memory capacity). These approaches are consistent with a dual-process perspective in which psychopathology i...
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Why do some people see their glass as half-empty rather than half-full or even imagine that the glass will be filled in the future? Experimental methods can illuminate how individual differences in information processing style can profoundly impact mood or even result in disorders such as depression. A computerized cognitive bias modification intervention targeting interpretation bias in depression via positive mental imagery (CBM-I) was evaluated by investigating its impact on mental health and...
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Abstract Background and objectives Using an interpretation training paradigm, previous research has demonstrated that it is possible to modify interpretation biases in socially anxious children and that trained interpretation bias affects important aspects of social anxiety ( Vassilopoulos, Banerjee, & Prantzalou, 2009 ). The current experiment was designed to replicate and extend the results reported by Vassilopoulos et al. (2009) . Methods In a benign interpretation training paradigm, descript...
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Prospective negative cognitions are suggested to play an important role in maintaining anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about positive prospective mental imagery. This study investigated differences in prospective mental imagery among 27 patients with anxiety disorders, 24 patients with MDD, and 32 control participants. Measures of both deliberately generated and intrusive imagery were completed. Results indicated that both patients with anxiety dis...
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#2Andrew Mathews (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 95
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BACKGROUND Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) procedures have been used to train individuals to interpret ambiguous information in a negative or benign direction and have provided evidence that negative biases causally contribute to emotional vulnerability. METHOD Here we present the development and validation of a new form of CBM designed to manipulate the cognitive errors known to characterize both depression and anxiety. Our manipulation was designed to modify the biased cognitions identified ...
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It is well established that anxious individuals show biases in information processing, such that they attend preferentially to threatening stimuli and interpret emotional ambiguity in a threatening way. It has also been established that these biases in attention and interpretation can causally influence anxiety. Recent advances in experimental work have involved the development of a paradigm known as Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a constellation of procedures which directly modify bias usin...
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We describe a model for polarization in multi-agent systems based on Esteban and Ray's classic measure of polarization from economics. Agents evolve by updating their beliefs (opinions) based on the beliefs of others and an underlying influence graph. We show that polarization eventually disappears (converges to zero) if the influence graph is strongly-connected. If the influence graph is a circulation we determine the unique belief value all agents converge to. For clique influence graphs we de...
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