Single-stage EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy using a lumen-apposing metal stent for malignant distal biliary obstruction.
Background and Aims EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD) using a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has recently been reported as an alternative treatment approach for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and failed ERCP. We analyzed the safety and technical and clinical efficacy of EUS-CD using LAMSs in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients with inoperable malignant distal bile duct obstruction who underwent EUS-CD using an electrocautery-enhanced (EC)-LAMS over a 3-year period (2015-2018). The main outcome measures were technical and clinical success (defined as a decline in serum bilirubin level by 50% at 2-week follow-up). Secondary outcomes were occurrence of adverse events, procedure time, and stent patency. Results Forty-six patients (47.8% women; median age, 73.1 ± 12.6 years) underwent direct EUS-CD using the biliary EC-LAMS. The procedure was technically successful in 43 patients (93.5%). The rate of clinical success was 97.7%. Adverse events occurred in 5 (11.6%) patients and included the following: 1 fatal bleeding 17 days after stent placement, 3 episodes of stent occlusion (food impaction), and 1 spontaneous migration (all 4 requiring reintervention). The mean follow-up was 114.37 days (95% confidence interval, 73.2-155.4). Conclusions EUS-CD using the EC-LAMS is effective. The rate of adverse events including one fatal event is not negligible and should be carefully considered before using the stent in this clinical setting. Prospective studies are required to validate our preliminary findings to fully assess the long-term efficacy and safety of the stent.