A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Published on May 29, 2018in ZooKeys1.137
· DOI :10.3897/ZOOKEYS.761.24214
Ruttapon Srisonchai4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Chula: Chulalongkorn University),
Henrik Enghoff18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Wild Center)
+ 1 AuthorsSomsak Panha15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Chula: Chulalongkorn University)
Sources
Abstract
: The dragon millipede genus Desmoxytes s.l. is split into five genera, based on morphological characters and preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses. The present article includes a review of Desmoxytes s.s., while future articles will deal with Hylomus Cook and Loomis, 1924 and three new genera which preliminarily are referred to as the 'acantherpestes', 'gigas', and 'spiny' groups. Diagnostic morphological characters of each group are discussed. Hylomus is resurrected as a valid genus and the following 33 species are assigned to it: H. asper (Attems, 1937), comb. n., H. cattienensis (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), comb. n., H. cervarius (Attems, 1953), comb. n., H. cornutus (Zhang & Li, 1982), comb. n., H. draco Cook & Loomis, 1924, stat. rev., H. enghoffi (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), comb. n., H. eupterygotus (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), comb. n., H. getuhensis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), comb. n., H. grandis (Golovatch, VandenSpiegel & Semenyuk, 2016), comb. n., H. hostilis (Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994), comb. n., H. jeekeli (Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994), comb. n., H. lingulatus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), comb. n., H. laticollis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n., H. longispinus (Loksa, 1960), comb. n., H. lui (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), comb. n., H. minutuberculus (Zhang, 1986), comb. n., H. nodulosus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), comb. n., H. parvulus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2014), comb. n., H. phasmoides (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n., H. pilosus (Attems, 1937), comb. n., H. proximus (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), comb. n., H. rhinoceros (Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2015), comb. n., H. rhinoparvus (Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, 2015), comb. n., H. scolopendroides (Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauries, 2010), comb. n., H. scutigeroides (Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauries, 2010), comb. n., H. similis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n., H. simplex (Golovatch, VandenSpiegel & Semenyuk, 2016), comb. n., H. simplipodus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n., H. specialis (Nguyen, Golovatch & Anichkin, 2005), comb. n., H. spectabilis (Attems, 1937), comb. n., H. spinitergus (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n., H. spinissimus (Golovatch, Li, Liu & Geoffroy, 2012), comb. n. and H. variabilis (Liu, Golovatch & Tian, 2016), comb. n.Desmoxytes s.s. includes the following species: D. breviverpa Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. cervina (Pocock,1895); D. delfae (Jeekel, 1964); D. des Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. pinnasquali Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. planata (Pocock, 1895); D. purpurosea Enghoff, Sutcharit & Panha, 2007; D. takensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, 2016; D. taurina (Pocock, 1895); D. terae (Jeekel, 1964), all of which are re-described based mainly on type material. Two new synonyms are proposed: Desmoxytes pterygota Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes cervina (Pocock, 1895)), Desmoxytes rubra Golovatch & Enghoff, 1994, syn. n. (= Desmoxytes delfae (Jeekel, 1964)). Six new species are described from Thailand: D. aurata Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. corythosaurus Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. euros Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. flabella Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. golovatchi Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., D. octoconigera Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., as well as one from Malaysia: D. perakensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n., and one from Myanmar: D. waepyanensis Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, sp. n. The species can mostly be easily distinguished by gonopod structure in combination with other external characters; some cases of particularly similar congeners are discussed. All species of Desmoxytes s.s. seem to be endemic to continental Southeast Asia (except the 'tramp' species D. planata). Some biological observations (relationship with mites, moulting) are recorded for the first time. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key, and distribution maps of all species are provided.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
20080.99Zootaxa
3 Authors (Cong Wei, ..., Yalin Zhang)
5 Citations
20101.14ZooKeys
24 Citations
20170.99Zootaxa
5 Authors (Adrián Villastrigo, ..., Hans Fery)
3 Citations
References31
Newest
#1Natdanai Likhitrakarn (Maejo University)H-Index: 7
#2Parin Jirapatrasilp (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 4
Last. Somsak Panha (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
At present, the millipede fauna of Myanmar comprises 92 species from 34 genera, 13 families and 8 orders, mostly described in 1889–1896. All literature records are cited with updates on species identities, as well as numerous taxonomic problems which make the number of species and even genera still imprecise. The Myanmar millipede fauna contains 70 endemic and five widespread synanthropic species. One species is found to have erroneously been recorded from Myanmar, and is ejected from the list o...
6 CitationsSource
ABSTRACT An annotated checklist for the terrestrial and freshwater arthropods of French Polynesia is presented. Compiled with the help of 48 experts and based on published records, it comprises 3025 valid species names belonging to the classes of Hexapoda Blainville, 1816 (2556 species), Chelicerata Heymons, 1901 (367 species), Myriapoda Latreille, 1802 (22 species) and Crustacea Pennant, 1777 (80 species). Reported are 1841 taxa from the Society Islands, followed by the Marquesas Islands with 1...
6 CitationsSource
#1Ruttapon Srisonchai (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 4
#2Henrik Enghoff (Wild Center)H-Index: 18
Last. Somsak Panha (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species were compared with type specimens of closely related species and were all found to exhibit explicit morphological differences from these. They can be distinguished from other members of Desmoxytes by ...
2 CitationsSource
#1Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
#2Thomas Wesener (Leibniz Association)H-Index: 11
At present, the millipede fauna of India comprises over 270 nominate species or subspecies in at least 90 genera, 25 families and 11 orders. As complete a catalogue as possible is compiled of all species or subspecies of Diplopoda formally reported from India, some of which remain dubious. Additionally, a checklist is also compiled of millipedes that have erroneously been recorded in India. Given also several literature lacunae, as well as numerous taxonomic problems, the number of species and e...
9 CitationsSource
Abstract The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlik...
2 CitationsSource
#1Weixin Liu (SCAU: South China Agricultural University)H-Index: 6
#2Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
Last. Mingyi Tian (SCAU: South China Agricultural University)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Six new species of Desmoxytes are described from southern China: Desmoxytes laticollis sp. n., Desmoxytes simplipoda sp. n., and Desmoxytes similis sp. n., all three from caves in Guangdong Province; Desmoxytes phasmoides sp. n. also from a cave, and both epigean Desmoxytes spiniterga sp. n. and Desmoxytes variabilis sp. n., the latter trio from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A modified key to all 20 Desmoxytes species currently known to occur in China is given.
7 CitationsSource
#1H. K. S. De Zoysa (Rajarata University of Sri Lanka)H-Index: 2
#2Anh D. Nguyen (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. Sriyani Wickramasinghe (Rajarata University of Sri Lanka)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
This review lists the currently known species of millepedes in Sri Lanka and discusses their current taxonomic status and distribution based on previous studies from 1865 to date. A total of 104 millipede species belonging to 44 genera, 18 families and nine orders have been recorded in Sri Lanka. Of these, 82 are known only from Sri Lanka; additionally, nine genera and one family are known only from Sri Lanka. Most of the millipede species have been recorded from two localities, namely Pundaluoy...
2 CitationsSource
Millipedes are some of the earliest examples of terrestrial animals, and fossils from the early Carboniferous Period indicate they were also some of the earliest prey. These fossils record ozopores, the openings of chemical defense glands, occurring along the length of the body. The secretions of these glands may consist of topical irritants, repellents, antifeedants, or, in the case of the large and widespread Order Polydesmida, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas that can be fatal to other arthropods o...
55 CitationsSource
The rediscovery of the Californian millipede Xystocheir bistipita surprisingly reveals that the species is bioluminescent. Using molecular phylogenetics, we show that X. bistipita is the evolutionary sister group of Motyxia, the only genus of New World bioluminescent millipedes. We demonstrate that bioluminescence originated in the group’s most recent common ancestor and evolved by gradual, directional change through diversification. Because bioluminescence in Motyxia has been experimentally dem...
16 CitationsSource
#1Natdanai Likhitrakarn (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 7
#2Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
Last. Somsak Panha (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 15
view all 3 authors...
Two new species of Desmoxytes are described and abundantly illustrated: D. rhinoceros sp. n. and D. rhinoparva sp. n., from southern and northern Laos, respectively. Illustrated redescriptions of all four Vietnamese Desmoxytes species proposed by Carl Attems are also provided, based on type material.
6 CitationsSource
Cited By11
Newest
#1Anh Nguyen (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)H-Index: 60
#1Anh D. Nguyen (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. Katsuyuki EguchiH-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Two new paradoxosomatid millipede species were discovered at the high elevations of Mount Fansipan in northwestern Vietnam. They are named as Orthomorphoides sapasp. nov. and Hylomus solenophorussp. nov. In addition to their morphological descriptions, sequences from fragments of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S rRNA, are also provided for both new species.
Source
Last. Somsak PanhaH-Index: 15
view all 9 authors...
The micropolydesmoid millipede family Haplodesmidae is here recorded from Cambodia for the first time through the discovery of the first, new species of the genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910: E. cambodiensis sp. nov. This new species is described from two limestone habitats in Kampot Province, based on abundant material. It is easily distinguished from all related congeners by the following combination of characters: body greyish-brown; limbus roundly lobulate; solenomere partially divided fr...
Source
#1Piyatida Pimvichai (MSU: Mahasarakham University)H-Index: 2
#2Henrik Enghoff (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 18
Last. Thierry Backeljau (University of Antwerp)H-Index: 51
view all 4 authors...
Pseudospirobolellidae is a poorly known family of spirobolidan millipedes with only two genera and five described species. Yet, the descriptive taxonomy and molecular systematics of this group have been largely neglected. Therefore, the present work presents an integrative taxonomic study of new pseudospirobolellid taxa in Thailand. To this end, two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S rRNA) combined with morphological characters were used to define the genus Coxobolellus, gen. nov. with 10...
Source
#1Natdanai Likhitrakarn (Maejo University)H-Index: 7
#2Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
Last. Somsak Panha (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 15
view all 8 authors...
Two new species of Plusioglyphiulus are described from southern Cambodia. Plusioglyphiulus biserratussp. nov. is clearly distinguished from all congeners by the shape of the telopodites of the posterior gonopods which are distinctly serrate laterally and by the anterior gonopods showing only a pair of single, smooth and curved coxosternal processes. Plusioglyphiulus khmer sp. nov. is distinguished by having most crests on the collum being complete and male legs 1 showing long, prominent, one-seg...
1 CitationsSource
#1Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
#2Weixin Liu (SCAU: South China Agricultural University)H-Index: 6
Based on all available information, 339 species from 71 genera, 26 families, and eleven orders of Diplopoda have hitherto been recorded from mainland China, the fauna thus being very rich, albeit far from completely known, comprising various zoogeographic elements and populating very different environments. Diplopods mainly occur in various woodlands, in caves, and high in the mountains. Most species (> 90 %, usually highly localised, including 160 cavernicoles), 18 genera, and one family are st...
4 CitationsSource
#1Victoria Wong (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 2
#2Derek A. Hennen (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 2
Last. Paul E. Marek (VT: Virginia Tech)H-Index: 14
view all 6 authors...
: The millipede Brachycybe lecontii Wood, 1864 is a fungivorous social millipede known for paternal care of eggs and forming multi-generational aggregations. We investigated the life history, paternal care, chemical defence, feeding and social behaviour of B. lecontii and provided morphological and anatomical descriptions, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Based on observations of B. lecontii from 13 locations throughout its distribution, we report the following natural history aspec...
4 CitationsSource
#1Anh Nguyen (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)H-Index: 60
#1Anh D. Nguyen (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)H-Index: 4
Last. Hong-Luong T Phung (VAST: Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology)
view all 4 authors...
: The genus Hylomus Cook & Loomis, 1924 is reviewed from Vietnam, with 13 recorded species. Of these, three are described as new, H. songoku sp. nov. from Xuan Son National Park, H. namek sp. nov. from Cuc Phuong National Park, and H. saiyans sp. nov. from Vinh Phuc and Ha Giang Provinces. The new species, H. songoku sp. nov., is distinguished by gonopod solenophore with rounded lobuliform lamina medialis, and well-developed lamina lateralis with a densely setose area; tip of gonopod tuberculifo...
1 CitationsSource
#2Sergei I. GolovatchH-Index: 14
Last. Somsak PanhaH-Index: 15
view all 5 authors...
: The millipede family Pyrgodesmidae and the genus Cryptocorypha are recorded from Thailand for the first time, being represented there by C.enghoffisp. n. The new species is distinguished by the evident apicodorsal trichostele on the last tibia of both sexes and the gonopodal telopodite being particularly complex, quadripartite, consisting of the longest, mesal, suberect solenomere branch; a slightly shorter, similarly slender, acuminate endomere branch tightly appressed to the solenomere; a so...
1 CitationsSource
#1Natdanai Likhitrakarn (Maejo University)H-Index: 7
#2Sergei I. Golovatch (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 14
Last. Somsak Panha (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
: Antheromorphanguyenisp. n. is described and illustrated from Kon Ka Kinh National Park, southern Vietnam. The new species is distinguished by a peculiar colour pattern showing a uniformly black-brown body contrasting with yellow-brown paraterga and epiproct, as well as in the pointed gonopodal process being unusually short, only approximately half as long as the solenophore. In addition, an identification key to all 13 presently known species, all mapped, is given. A new record of A.festiva is...
2 CitationsSource
5 CitationsSource