Functional Moieties for Intracellular Traffic of Nanomaterials
Published on Jan 1, 2018
· DOI :10.1016/B978-0-323-50878-0.00014-8
Abstract Particulate delivery systems can protect entrapped material from chemical and enzymatic degradation, resulting in increased blood circulation time, by avoiding the uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system and rapid clearance via the kidneys. In addition, those carriers allow the concomitant delivery of multiple components for a sustained release of the entrapped active molecules, prolonging their therapeutic effects. To achieve a specific therapeutic outcome, the scientific community has done considerable efforts on developing different strategies to target tissues and specific cells through the development of site-directed nanocarriers. By modulating nanoparticle (NP) size, surface charge, or hydrophobicity, it is possible to regulate the endocytic pathways and facilitate endosomal escape, leading to the cytosolic delivery of therapeutic molecules. The modification of NPs by organelle-specific targeting macromolecules (drugs, proteins, DNA, short interference RNA, among others) has an extreme potential for the delivery of molecules to intracellular target receptors, constituting a particularly important strategy to develop nanomedicines with extended efficacy and specificity. This chapter addresses the current strategies explored to achieve the delivery and accumulation of bioactive molecules to targeted organelles by nanotechnology-based systems.