Art-of-Living: A Model and the Development of the Art-of-Living Questionnaire (AOLQ)

Claudia Anette Stumpp-Spies1
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Bernhard Schmitz23
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Abstract
How should I live my life in order to gain satisfaction in my personal life? The modern industrial world proposes technical innovations, global exchange, media, and increasingly reduced moral standards as answer to this question and offers an endless number of lifestyle options promising personal satisfaction. However, as for the philosophers in the past, questions such as “how to lead a good life” and “what is the essence of art-of-living” are still prominent in all layers of society and modern lifestyles. We developed a theoretical psychological model for art-of-living, which is based on philosophical considerations and combines philosophic elements with human resources and individual strategies. We then used this model to develop a questionnaire measuring art-of-living, which we validated based on the data from 224 individuals. In total, 22 scales including 4 items each were assessed. Evaluations showed that the AOLQ outcome predicts participant well-being measured with the “Subjective Happiness Scale” (SHS). In addition, we also found correlations with specific personality characteristics (“Big Five Inventory”, BFI-K). Very good psychometric properties could be shown for the AOLQ – e.g., high internal consistency and factorial validation as well as convergent, predictive, and incremental validity. Our results also indicate that optimism, romantic relationships, enthusiasm, learning, and partnership/family are important aspects of individuals’ art-of-living. Further revision of the AOLQ resulted in a practical tool that can also be used to create individual profiles of the art-of-living components.
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2016
1 Author (Bernhard Schmitz)
38 Citations
2016
1 Author (Bernhard Schmitz)
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