Objectification: Seeing and treating people as things.

Published on Jun 1, 2017in British Journal of Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1111/BJSO.12205
Steve Loughnan23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Edin.: University of Edinburgh),
Jeroen Vaes25
Estimated H-index: 25
(University of Trento)
#1C Baldissarri (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 7
#2Luca AndrighettoH-Index: 15
Last. Chiara Volpato (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 17
view all 4 authors...
The current work aimed to extend the burgeoning literature on working objectification by investigating the effects of particular job activities on self-perception. By integrating relevant theoretical reflections with recent empirical evidence, we expected that performing objectifying (i.e., repetitive, fragmented, and other-directed) tasks would affect participants' self-objectification and, in turn, their belief in personal free will. In three studies, we consistently found that performing a ma...
17 CitationsSource
#1Pablo Briñol (UAM: Autonomous University of Madrid)H-Index: 46
#2Richard E. Petty (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 143
Last. Jennifer N. Belding (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Many objectification phenomena can be understood from a mind–body dualism perspective in which the more people focus on their bodies, the less they focus on their minds. Instead of viewing mind and body in opposition to each other, we advocate for a more reciprocal view in which mind and body work in conjunction. Consistent with an integrated mind–body approach, we begin our review by describing research on embodied persuasion revealing that focusing on our own body can reduce but also increase ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Francesca Guizzo (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 4
#2Maria Rosaria Cadinu (UNIPD: University of Padua)H-Index: 15
Although previous research has demonstrated that objectification impairs female cognitive performance, no research to date has investigated the mechanisms underlying such decrement. Therefore, we tested the role of flow experience as one mechanism leading to performance decrement under sexual objectification. Gaze gender was manipulated by having male versus female experimenters take body pictures of female participants (N = 107) who then performed a Sustained Attention to Response Task. As pred...
19 CitationsSource
#1Maria Giuseppina Pacilli (University of Perugia)H-Index: 14
#2Stefano Pagliaro (University of Chieti-Pescara)H-Index: 16
Last. Anna Costanza Baldry (Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli)H-Index: 25
view all 6 authors...
This paper examines the influence of female sexualization on people's willingness to provide help in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined how sexualization may make women seem lacking moral patiency and moral virtue both of which may lead to a reduced willingness to help. In the first study, participants read a fictitious newspaper article describing an IPV incident. They were then presented with a picture of the ostensible victim depicting the woman with either a sexualized or ...
29 CitationsSource
#1Xijing Wang (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 4
#2Eva G. Krumhuber (UCL: University College London)H-Index: 18
Objectification, which refers to the treatment of others as objectlike things, has long been observed in capitalism. While the negative impact of money on interpersonal harmony has been well documented, the social cognitive processes that underlie them are relatively unknown. Across four studies, we explored whether the love of money leads to objectification, while controlling for social power and status. In Study 1, the love and importance attached to money positively predicted the tendency to ...
17 CitationsSource
#1James M. Tyler (Purdue University)H-Index: 11
#2Rachel M. Calogero (UKC: University of Kent)H-Index: 38
Last. Katherine E. Adams (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Women are sexually objectified when viewed and treated by others as mere objects. Abundant research has examined the negative consequences of being the target of sexual objectification; however, limited attention has focused on the person doing the objectification. Our focus is on the agent and how self-regulatory resources influence sexual objectification. Consistent with prior evidence, we reasoned that people have a well-learned automatic response to objectify sexualized women, and as such, w...
9 CitationsSource
#1Elise Holland (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 12
#2Peter Koval (ACU: Australian Catholic University)H-Index: 26
Last. Nick Haslam (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 80
view all 5 authors...
Sexual objectification, particularly of young women, is highly prevalent in modern industrialized societies. Although there is plenty of experimental and cross-sectional research on objectification, prospective studies investigating the prevalence and psychological impact of objectifying events in daily life are scarce. We used ecological momentary assessment to track the occurrence of objectifying events over 1 week in the daily lives of young women (N = 81). Participants reported being targete...
47 CitationsSource
#1Valentina Piccoli (UniTS: University of Trieste)H-Index: 7
#2Carlo Fantoni (UniTS: University of Trieste)H-Index: 11
Last. Andrea Carnaghi (UniTS: University of Trieste)H-Index: 14
view all 5 authors...
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word ‘woman’ was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word ‘man’ was used as the prime, no difference w...
3 CitationsSource
#1Steve Loughnan (Edin.: University of Edinburgh)H-Index: 23
#2C Baldissarri (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 7
Last. Laura Elder (Edin.: University of Edinburgh)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
People objectify others by viewing them as less warm, competent, moral, and human (Heflick & Goldenberg, 2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 598; Vaes, Paladino, & Puvia, 2011, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol., 41, 774). In two studies, we examined whether the objectified share this view of themselves, internalizing their objectification. In Study 1 (N = 114), we examined sexual objectification, and in Study 2 (N = 62), we examined workplace objectification. Consistent across both studies, we found that objec...
24 CitationsSource
#1Laurie A. Rudman (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 47
#2Kris Mescher (RU: Rutgers University)H-Index: 4
Although dehumanizing women and male sexual aggression are theoretically aligned, the present research provides the first direct support for this assumption, using the Implicit Association Test to assess two forms of female dehumanization: animalization and objectification. In Study 1, men who automatically associated women more than men with primitive constructs (e.g., animals, instinct, nature) were more willing to rape and sexually harass women, and to report negative attitudes toward female ...
207 CitationsSource
Cited By2
#1Peter Koval (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 26
#2Elise Holland (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 12
Last. Nick Haslam (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 80
view all 9 authors...
Exposure to sexual objectification is an everyday experience for many women, yet little is known about its emotional consequences. Fredrickson and Roberts’ (1997) objectification theory proposed a within-person process, wherein exposure to sexual objectification causes women to adopt a third-person perspective on their bodies, labeled self-objectification, which has harmful downstream consequences for their emotional well-being. However, previous studies have only tested this model at the betwee...
10 CitationsSource
#1Lijuan Xiao (BNU: Beijing Normal University)H-Index: 1
#2Baolin Li (PKU: Peking University)H-Index: 6
Last. Fang Wang (BNU: Beijing Normal University)H-Index: 4
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Sexual objectification is very common in modern Western societies, especially toward women. Previous research has suggested that in Western cultures, social power could lead to objectification. Specifically, power activates an approaching tendency toward useful targets, in turn leading to instrumental objectification and sexual objectification of targets. However, previous research has mostly focused on Western cultures, and the neural correlates underlying this phenomenon remain unclea...
5 CitationsSource