Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton

Published on Aug 1, 2017in Applied Surface Science6.182
· DOI :10.1016/J.APSUSC.2017.03.272
S. Thambiraj6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Madras),
D. Ravi Shankaran9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Madras)
Abstract We aimed to develop a simple and low-cost method for the production of high-performance cellulose nanomaterials from renewable and sustainable resources. Here, cellulose microcrystals (CMCs) were prepared by controlled acidic and basic hydrolysis of cotton from textile industry wastes. The resulted CMCs were further converted into cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high crystallinity by acidic hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics and morphological feature of CMCs and CNCs were studied by various analytical techniques such as UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fluorescence spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The isolated CNCs possess a needle-like morphological structure with the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of 180 ± 60 nm, 10 ± 1 nm, respectively. The AFM result reveals that the CNCs have a high aspect ratio of 40 ± 14 nm and the average thickness of 6.5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicate that the synthesized CNCs possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Preliminary experiments were carried out to fabricate CNCs incorporated poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The results suggest that the concept of waste to wealth could be well executed from the prepared CNCs, which have great potential for various applications including bio-sensors, food packaging and drug delivery applications.
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