Registered Replication Report : Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012)

Published on Mar 1, 2017in Perspectives on Psychological Science9.837
· DOI :10.1177/1745691617693624
Samantha Bouwmeester18
Estimated H-index: 18
,
Peter P. J. L. Verkoeijen22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Avans University of Applied Sciences)
+ 53 AuthorsAntonio M. Espín14
Estimated H-index: 14
Sources
Abstract
In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghog et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation.
Figures & Tables
Download
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
201249.96Nature
3 Authors (David G. Rand, ..., Martin A. Nowak)
2017
References15
Newest
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between public good game (PGG) contributions and cognitive abilities assessed by the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Employing two additional treatment conditions, the paper explores (i) whether CRT-scores are linked to preferences for cooperation or to a better understanding of the incentive structure; and (ii) the association between CRT-scores and contributions, if choices are elicited under time pressure. A time limit should make it harder for p...
Source
Does cooperating require the inhibition of selfish urges? Or does "rational" self-interest constrain cooperative impulses? I investigated the role of intuition and deliberation in cooperation by meta-analyzing 67 studies in which cognitive-processing manipulations were applied to economic cooperation games (total N = 17,647; no indication of publication bias using Egger's test, Begg's test, or p-curve). My meta-analysis was guided by the social heuristics hypothesis, which proposes that intuitio...
Source
The article “Intuition, deliberation, and the evolution of cooperation,” by Bear and Rand (1), uses game theoretic models to examine the role of intuition and deliberation in human cooperation. The premise is that dual processes characterize human social decision making: “(i) automatic, intuitive processes that are relatively effortless but inflexible; and (ii) controlled, deliberative processes that are relatively effortful but flexible” (1). The objective is to “provide a formal theoretical fr...
Source
Humans often cooperate with strangers, despite the costs involved. A long tradition of theoretical modeling has sought ultimate evolutionary explanations for this seemingly altruistic behavior. More recently, an entirely separate body of experimental work has begun to investigate cooperation’s proximate cognitive underpinnings using a dual-process framework: Is deliberative self-control necessary to reign in selfish impulses, or does self-interested deliberation restrain an intuitive desire to c...
Source
#1Anthony M. Evans (Tilburg University)H-Index: 14
#2Kyle D. Dillon (Harvard University)H-Index: 5
Last. David G. Rand (Yale University)H-Index: 71
view all 3 authors...
When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times (RTs) and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition vs. reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between RT an...
Source
#1Ian Krajbich (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 21
#2Björn Bartling (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 19
Last. Ernst Fehr (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 135
view all 4 authors...
Do people intuitively favour certain actions over others? In some dual-process research, reaction-time (RT) data have been used to infer that certain choices are intuitive. However, the use of behavioural or biological measures to infer mental function, popularly known as ‘reverse inference', is problematic because it does not take into account other sources of variability in the data, such as discriminability of the choice options. Here we use two example data sets obtained from value-based cho...
Source
#1David G. Rand (Yale University)H-Index: 71
#2Gordon T. Kraft-Todd (Yale University)H-Index: 13
The cognitive basis of prosocial behavior has received considerable recent attention. Previous work using economic games has found that in social dilemmas, intuitive decisions are more prosocial on average. The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) explains this result by contending that strategies which are successful in daily life become automatized as intuitions. Deliberation then causes participants to adjust to the self-interested strategy in the specific setting at hand. Here we provide furth...
Source
#1Peter P. J. L. Verkoeijen (EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)H-Index: 22
#2Samantha Bouwmeester (EUR: Erasmus University Rotterdam)H-Index: 18
Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific ...
Source
#1David G. Rand (Yale University)H-Index: 71
#2Alexander Peysakhovich (Yale University)H-Index: 18
Last. Joshua D. Greene (Harvard University)H-Index: 44
view all 7 authors...
Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behav...
Source
#1Gustav Tinghög (Linköping University)H-Index: 18
#2David Andersson (Linköping University)H-Index: 11
Last. Magnus Johannesson (Linköping University)H-Index: 108
view all 9 authors...
Rand et al.1 reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly1. Time pressure was used to induce intuitive decisions, and they concluded that intuition ...
Source
Cited By79
Newest
#1Charlotte Rossetti (MPG: Max Planck Society)
#2Christian Hilbe (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 21
Last. Oliver P. Hauser (University of Exeter)H-Index: 13
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Cooperation is crucial for the success of social interactions. Given its importance, humans should readily be able to use available cues to predict how likely others are to cooperate. Here, we review the empirical literature on how accurate such predictions are. To this end, we distinguish between three classes of cues: behavioral (including past decisions), personal (including gender, attractiveness, and group membership) and situational (including the benefits to cooperation...
Source
#1Maayan Katzir (BIU: Bar-Ilan University)H-Index: 6
#2Shachar Cohen (BIU: Bar-Ilan University)
Last. Eliran Halali (BIU: Bar-Ilan University)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Abstract null null Previous research on social preferences has found that reciprocal behavior is an automatic response, which requires less cognitive control than self-interested behavior. However, research on unethicality has demonstrated that cognitive control is required to resist the temptation to benefit from engaging in an unethical act, thus suggesting that self-interested behaviors are automatic. By manipulating information asymmetry (i.e., advantage) among trust game receivers, we exami...
Source
#1Allan DrazenH-Index: 45
#2Anna DreberH-Index: 37
Last. Erik SnowbergH-Index: 22
view all 4 authors...
Recent large-scale replications of social science experiments provide important information on the reliability of experimental research. Unfortunately, there exist no mechanisms to ensure replications are done. We propose such a mechanism: journal-based replication, in which the publishing journal insists on a replication attempt between acceptance and publication. We discuss what we learned from a proof-of-concept journal-based replication at the Journal of Public Economics. Our experience indi...
Source
#1Ozan Isler (QUT: Queensland University of Technology)H-Index: 3
#2Simon Gächter (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 63
Last. Chris Starmer (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 34
view all 4 authors...
Humans frequently cooperate for collective benefit, even in one-shot social dilemmas. This provides a challenge for theories of cooperation. Two views focus on intuitions but offer conflicting explanations. The Social Heuristics Hypothesis argues that people with selfish preferences rely on cooperative intuitions and predicts that deliberation reduces cooperation. The Self-Control Account emphasizes control over selfish intuitions and is consistent with strong reciprocity-a preference for condit...
Source
#1Paolo Crosetto (UGA: University of Grenoble)H-Index: 13
#2Werner Güth (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 48
Abstract null null Studies on the intuitive or deliberate nature of human actions often use time constraints for identification, assuming that constrained individuals fall back to intuitive behavior. This identification strategy disregards individual heterogeneity and self-priming, i.e. the behavioral rule that subjects can form during the instructions phase, and then apply irrespective of the time constraint. We use respondent data from an impunity game as an example of how subject heterogeneit...
Source
This paper argues that some of the discussion around meta-scientific issues can be viewed as an argument over different “meta-hypotheses” – assumptions made about how different hypotheses in a scientific literature relate to each other. I argue that, currently, such meta-hypotheses are typically left unstated except in methodological papers and that the consequence of this practice is that it is hard to determine what can be learned from a direct replication study. I argue in favor of a procedur...
Source
#1Cary Deck (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 24
#2Salar Jahedi (Amazon.com)H-Index: 6
Last. Roman M. Sheremeta (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 38
view all 3 authors...
Abstract There are many ways to induce cognitive load. In this paper, we manipulate cognitive capacity using four common techniques: a number memorization task, a visual pattern task, an auditory recall task, and time pressure. Under each load manipulation (as well as under ’no load’), every participant completes a series of math problems, lottery tasks, logic puzzles, and allocation decisions. We find similar behavioral responses across all techniques: poorer performance on the math problems an...
Source
#1Florian K. Diekert (University of Oslo)H-Index: 10
#2Kjell Arne Brekke (University of Oslo)H-Index: 25
Scarcity sharpens the conflict between short term gains and long term sustainability. Psychological research documents that decision makers focus on immediate needs under scarcity and use available resources more effectively. However, decision makers also borrow too much from future resources and overall performance decreases as a consequence. Using an online experiment, we study how scarcity affects borrowing decisions in groups. We first document that scarcity affects groups in a similar way a...
Source
#1Maria Plötner (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 3
#2Robert Hepach (University of Oxford)H-Index: 14
Last. Michael Tomasello (MPG: Max Planck Society)H-Index: 185
view all 5 authors...
Adults under time pressure share with others generously, but with more time they act more selfishly. In the current study, we investigated whether young children already operate in this same way, and, if so, whether this changes over the preschool and early school age years. We tested 144 children in three age groups (3-, 5-, and 7-year olds) in a one-shot dictator game: Children were given nine stickers and had the possibility to share stickers with another child who was absent. Children in the...
Source
Resume Cet article vise a offrir une vision d’ensemble des recentes evolutions des pratiques de recherche en psychologie. Un rappel des differents symptomes de la crise de la replicabilite (et de confiance) ayant affecte la psychologie sera suivi par une discussion approfondie et nuancee des facteurs responsables de cette situation. Il s’agira ensuite, en s’appuyant sur des illustrations et des ressources, de demontrer le role crucial des pratiques de recherche ouvertes comme moyen de resoudre c...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.