The Kinetics and the Permeation Properties of Piezo Channels.

Published on Jan 1, 2017in Current Topics in Membranes3.744
· DOI :10.1016/BS.CTM.2016.11.004
Radhakrishnan Gnanasambandam10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UB: University at Buffalo),
Philip A. Gottlieb32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UB: University at Buffalo),
Fredrick Sachs4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UB: University at Buffalo)
Abstract Piezo channels are eukaryotic, cation-selective mechanosensitive channels (MSCs), which show rapid activation and voltage-dependent inactivation. The kinetics of these channels are largely consistent across multiple cell types and different stimulation paradigms with some minor variability. No accessory subunits that associate with Piezo channels have been reported. They are homotrimers and each ∼300 kD monomer has an N-terminal propeller blade-like mechanosensing module, which can confer mechanosensing capabilities on ASIC-1 (the trimeric non-MSC, acid-sensing ion channel-1) and a C-terminal pore module, which influences conductance, selectivity, and channel inactivation. Repeated stimulation can cause domain fracture and diffusion of these channels leading to synchronous loss of inactivation. The reconstituted channels spontaneously open only in asymmetric bilayers but lack inactivation. Mutations that cause hereditary xerocytosis alter PIEZO1 kinetics. The kinetics of the wild-type PIEZO1 and alterations thereof in mutants (M2225R, R2456K, and DhPIEZO1) are summarized in the form of a quantitative model and hosted online. The pore is permeable to alkali ions although Li + permeates poorly. Divalent cations, notably Ca 2+ , traverse the channel and inhibit the flux of monovalents. The large monovalent organic cations such as tetramethyl ammonium and tetraethyl ammonium can traverse the channel, but slowly, suggesting a pore diameter of ∼8 A, and the estimated in-plane area change upon opening is around 6–20 nm 2 . Ruthenium red can enter the channel only from the extracellular side and seems to bind in a pocket close to residue 2496.
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