Stimulus Threat and Exposure Context Modulate the Effect of Mere Exposure on Approach Behaviors.

Published on Nov 29, 2016in Frontiers in Psychology2.988
· DOI :10.3389/FPSYG.2016.01881
Steven G. Young21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CUNY: City University of New York),
Isaiah F. Jones1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Miami University),
Heather M. Claypool19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Miami University)
Sources
Abstract
Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli), mere-exposure potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli), mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that mere-exposure effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the mere-exposure literature are discussed.
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References31
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#2John D. E. Gabrieli (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 160
The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect....
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#1Michael J. Forster (University of Vienna)H-Index: 52
#2Helmut LederH-Index: 56
Last. Ulrich AnsorgeH-Index: 31
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According to the processing-fluency explanation of aesthetics, more fluently processed stimuli are preferred (R. Reber, N. Schwarz, & P. Winkielman, 2004, Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver‚Äôs processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, pp. 364‚Äď382.). In this view, the subjective feeling of ease of processing is considered important, but this has not been directly tested in perceptual processing. In two experiments, we therefore obje...
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#1Isaiah F. Jones (Miami University)H-Index: 1
#2Steven G. Young (Tufts University)H-Index: 21
Last. Heather M. Claypool (Miami University)H-Index: 19
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The mere-exposure literature has shown that familiar objects are preferred to novel objects. However, no work has definitively shown that mere exposure can direct and facilitate approach movements. In Experiment 1, participants were shown stimuli and were later re-exposed to them along with novel stimuli. Participants were directed to make an approach or avoidant motion to each and response times were recorded. As predicted, participants were quicker to approach and slower to avoid familiar rela...
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#1Joshua A. Hicks (A&M: Texas A&M University)H-Index: 29
#2Laura A. King (MU: University of Missouri)H-Index: 58
Research suggests that repeated subliminal exposure to environmental stimuli enhances positive affective responses. To date, this research has primarily concentrated on the effects of repeated exposure on explicit measures of positive affect (PA). However, recent research suggests that repeated subliminal presentations may increase implicit PA as well. The present study tested this hypothesis. Participants were either subliminally primed with repeated presentations of the same stimuli or only ex...
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#1Steven G. Young (Miami University)H-Index: 21
#2Heather M. Claypool (Miami University)H-Index: 19
The mere exposure (ME) effect is the phenomenon whereby familiar stimuli are rated more positively than their novel counterparts (e.g., Zajonc, 1968). Though the effect of mere familiarity on a variety of affective judgments is robust and well documented, relatively little research has examined the effects of ME on other non-affective outcomes. The current research addressed this issue by examining the effects of ME on selective attention to threatening and neutral stimuli. We predicted and foun...
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#1Marieke de Vries (Radboud University Nijmegen)H-Index: 18
#2Rob W. HollandH-Index: 34
Last. Piotr WinkielmanH-Index: 44
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People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated old stimuli, but it is most robust with new but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averageness effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment, whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared...
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When participants are repeatedly presented with an unfamiliar stimulus, this stimulus is rated as more likable (mere-exposure effect) or more valid (truth effect) as compared with a similar non-repeated stimulus. Both effects have been discussed as effects of fluency. Typical research designs on these effects involve a test phase in which ratings of both repeated and non-repeated stimuli are required. Based on research on moderators of fluency effects, we propose that the procedure of assessing ...
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A set of face stimuli called the NimStim Set of Facial Expressions is described. The goal in creating this set was to provide facial expressions that untrained individuals, characteristic of research participants, would recognize. This set is large in number, multiracial, and available to the scientific community online. The results of psychometric evaluations of these stimuli are presented. The results lend empirical support for the validity and reliability of this set of facial expressions as ...
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#1Beate Seibt (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 24
#2Roland NeumannH-Index: 20
Last. Fritz Strack (University of W√ľrzburg)H-Index: 82
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Based on the conceptualization of approach as a decrease in distance and avoidance as an increase in distance, we predicted that stimuli with positive valence facilitate behavior for either approaching the stimulus (object as reference point) or for bringing the stimulus closer (self as reference point) and that stimuli with negative valence facilitate behavior for withdrawing from the stimulus or for pushing the stimulus away. In Study 1, we found that motions to and from a computer screen wher...
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To emote literally means to move or prepare for action. A large body of research indicates that flexor and extensor movements are conditionally associated with approach- and avoidance-related motivations. It has also been widely argued that approach and avoidant motivations are asymmetrically instantiated in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Nevertheless, to date, these literatures remain largely separate. In the present investigation, flexor and extensor movements that were visuospa...
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BACKGROUND Numerous studies have reported that the repeated presentation of a stimulus leads to an increase in positive affect towards the stimulus itself (the so-called mere exposure effect). Here, we evaluate whether changes in liking due to repetition may have a differential impact on subsequent memories in younger and older adults. METHOD In two experiments, younger and older adults were asked to rate a series of nonwords (Experiment 1) or unfamiliar neutral faces (Experiment 2) in terms of ...
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ABSTRACTBackground: This study focused on attitudes of workers and family members towards self-determination of individuals with intellectual disability. First, we compare their self-determination attitudes. Second, we test the link from mutual communication (workers and family members perceive that the other party openly dialogues about self-determination) to individual attitudes. Finally, we examine the relationship between mutual communication and affinity in attitudes.Method: We conducted a ...
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