Dermal Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard

Published on Jan 1, 2015
· DOI :10.1016/B978-0-12-800159-2.00039-7
Donald R. Gerecke18
Estimated H-index: 18
(RU: Rutgers University),
Joshua P. Gray19
Estimated H-index: 19
(United States Coast Guard Academy)
+ 1 AuthorsRobert P. Casillas20
Estimated H-index: 20
(Battelle Memorial Institute)
Sources
Abstract
This chapter describes the dermal toxicity events of the alkylating agent, sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which ultimately causes detachment of the epidermis from the dermis. Skin exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) starts a series of dermal toxicity events with severity determined in part by mediators of injury that regulate inflammation, immune responses, apoptosis, necrosis, and a number of signaling pathways. This complex series of events involves a host of normal skin responses to wounding that interact with, influence, and regulate each other. Each step of the injury process is described in detail and an in-depth comparison is made between SM-induced and other types of wound injury. Various in vitro and in vivo SM injury models are described and potential therapeutic countermeasures are identified.
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AbstractPurpose: Sulfur mustard (SM) induces acute ocular lesions, including erosions and inflammation that may be followed by delayed injuries expressed by epithelial defects and neovascularization (NV). Based on the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity, we evaluated the clinical and biochemical effects of topical treatment with doxycycline, an MMP inhibitor, targeted to the various injury stages.Methods: Rabbit eyes were exposed to SM vapor. A clinical follow-up was carried out up to 2 mo...
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AbstractSulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant. The lack of an effective antidote makes SM a continued threat to both military and civilian settings. A surrogate agent, namely mechlorethamine (HN2), was used here to mimic the toxicity of SM, and the main objective of this study was to demonstrate if selected organoselenium analogs could protect cultured A-431 skin cells from HN2 toxicity. Test compounds included ebselen (EB-1) and three related organoselenium analogs (EB-2, EB-3 and EB-4). In ...
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#1John Jenner (SU: Salisbury University)H-Index: 9
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The skin is one of the important affected target organs by sulfur mustard (SM) as a chemical weapon, besides the eyes and lungs. Skin exposure with sulfur mustard results in the onset of a multiple series of events including a full set of dermal responses for normal wound healing and their mutual influence on each other, eventually leading to skin toxicity. In this process, various mediators that have a regulating role in inflammation, apoptosis, immune responses and some signaling pathways are ...
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