Macrophages and inflammatory mediators in pulmonary injury induced by mustard vesicants

Published on Jun 1, 2016in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences4.728
· DOI :10.1111/NYAS.13123
Rama Malaviya14
Estimated H-index: 14
(RU: Rutgers University),
Vasanthi R. Sunil20
Estimated H-index: 20
(RU: Rutgers University)
+ 5 AuthorsDebra L. Laskin71
Estimated H-index: 71
(RU: Rutgers University)
Sources
Abstract
Sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are cytotoxic alkylating agents that cause severe and progressive injury to the respiratory tract, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that macrophages and the inflammatory mediators they release play roles in both acute and long-term pulmonary injuries caused by mustards. In this article, we review the pathogenic effects of SM and NM on the respiratory tract and potential inflammatory mechanisms contributing to this activity.
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Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has...
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Exposure of humans and animals to vesicants, including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), causes severe and debilitating damage to the respiratory tract. Both acute and long term pathological consequences are observed in the lung following a single exposure to these vesicants. Evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that macrophages and the inflammatory mediators they release play an important role in mustard-induced lung injury. In this paper, the pathogenic effects of SM ...
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