Mind the gap: accountability, observation and special education

Published on Jan 2, 2017in Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice
· DOI :10.1080/0969594X.2015.1114913
Christina C. Crowe1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Yale University),
Susan E. Rivers29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Yale University),
Michelle C. Bertoli5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Yale University)
AbstractThere is an absence of observation-based tools designed to evaluate teaching in special education classrooms. Evaluations derived from classroom observations are integral to the accountability process, adding value to understanding teaching and learning by providing a lens into the classroom that test scores cannot capture. The present paper systematically examined existing classroom observation tools, identifying constructs measured and noting elements unique to special education classrooms. Results demonstrate that most extant tools tap into three primary categories of teacher behaviours, but overlook the role paraprofessionals play as well as teacher professional behaviours. Taken together, results reflect the need for a tool designed specifically for special education classrooms. Limitations and implications for practice and policy are discussed.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
3 Authors (Shanjida Halim, ..., Tanzina Halim)
1 Citations
43 Citations
4 Authors (Honglin Peng, ..., Zhenyi Wan)
#1Morgan S. PolikoffH-Index: 16
#2Andrew McEachinH-Index: 10
Last. Matthew DuqueH-Index: 4
view all 4 authors...
Forty-two states and the District of Columbia have recently received waivers to the school accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). As the prospects for reauthorizing the Act in the near term are dim, these new accountability systems will be law for at least several years. Drawing on a four-part framework from the measurement literature, we describe and critique the approved waiver accountability plans, comparing them to the NCLB accountability rules. We find a mixed b...
34 CitationsSource
#1Bridget K. Hamre (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 52
#2Robert C. Pianta (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 139
Last. Aki Hamagami (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 2
view all 12 authors...
This is a copy of an article published in the Elementary School Journal © 2013 University of Chicago Press. The final publication is available at University of Chicago Press.
285 CitationsSource
884 CitationsSource
#1Susan E. Rivers (Yale University)H-Index: 29
#2Marc A. Brackett (Yale University)H-Index: 44
Last. Peter Salovey (Yale University)H-Index: 131
view all 5 authors...
The RULER Approach (“RULER”) is a setting-level, social and emotional learning program that is grounded in theory and evidence. RULER is designed to modify the quality of classroom social interactions so that the climate becomes more supportive, empowering, and engaging. This is accomplished by integrating skill-building lessons and tools so that teachers and students develop their emotional literacy. In a clustered randomized control trial, we tested the hypothesis that RULER improves the socia...
108 CitationsSource
#1Kata MihalyH-Index: 10
#2Daniel F. McCaffreyH-Index: 68
Last. J. R. LockwoodH-Index: 18
view all 4 authors...
States and districts are collecting multiple measures of teaching to evaluate teacher effectiveness, but there is limited information about how indicators can be combined to improve inferences about a teacher’s impact on student achievement and about teaching. We derive a statistical model and estimate the parameters of an optimal combined measure of teacher effectiveness using data from the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project. We contrast the optimal composites to composites created us...
59 Citations
#1Thomas J. KaneH-Index: 63
#2Daniel F. McCaffreyH-Index: 68
Last. Douglas O. StaigerH-Index: 82
view all 4 authors...
68 Citations
The most effective approaches for teaching professional English language and the best resources involved in this process all round the world are analysed in this study. Great attention is focused on computer-based self-access language learning. In my opin ion, it is one of the key po ints in professional foreign language training, wh ich is effective only if students are strongly motivated for developing their own professional foreign language experience. Significant components for successful te...
17 Citations
#1Maria Regina Reyes (Yale University)H-Index: 9
#2Marc A. Brackett (Yale University)H-Index: 44
Last. Peter Salovey (Yale University)H-Index: 131
view all 5 authors...
The emotional connections students foster in their classrooms are likely to impact their success in school. Using a multimethod, multilevel approach, this study examined the link between classroom emotional climate and academic achievement, including the role of student engagement as a mediator. Data were collected from 63 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (N 1,399 students) and included classroom observations, student reports, and report card grades. As predicted, multilevel mediation analyses ...
544 CitationsSource
15 Citations
#1Rosemary Butt (UC: University of Canberra)H-Index: 3
#2Kaye Lowe (UC: University of Canberra)H-Index: 1
Research has shown that teaching assistants (TAs) working in mainstream classrooms with special needs students in Australia are being required to perform quite complex tasks such as curriculum modification and differentiation yet they are not required to have any formal qualifications nor training in these tasks. In the United Kingdom, TAs are not required to have any formal qualifications, while TAs employed in the USA are required to hold a two-year post-secondary degree or have obtained an as...
40 CitationsSource
Cited By10
#1Gordon Brobbey (UW: University of Washington)
#2Zaher Kmail (UW: University of Washington)
Classroom observation is an accountability practice which promotes the evaluation of teachers’ capacity to meet standards, improve teaching practices, and enhance student learning outcomes. Prior research has revealed that these practices are not without bias: the reliability of observation can be challenged because of classroom or observer characteristics. Unlike general education learning environments, much less is known about the reliability of observing classrooms that service students with ...
#1Janelle E. Rodl (SFSU: San Francisco State University)H-Index: 3
#2Rebecca A. Cruz (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 5
Last. Gregory A. Knollman (TU: Towson University)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Abstract This article examines Q methodology as an empirical approach for use in teacher evaluation research, specifically research examining evaluative measures as applied to teachers of students with disabilities. Q is a qualiquantalogical method that requires participants to order or scale items relative to each other in characterizing a person or behavior. Participant viewpoints are intercorrelated and factor analyzed to determine common viewpoints regarding the salience of items representin...
1 CitationsSource
#1Maike Schermer ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)
#2Tim Fosker ('QUB': Queen's University Belfast)H-Index: 11
ABSTRACTArguably one of the most valuable tools for investigating pupil behaviour in an educational environment is systematic classroom observation. Classroom observation is often cited as having t...
#1Tia Navelene Barnes (UD: University of Delaware)H-Index: 9
#2Christina Cipriano (UMassD: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth)H-Index: 3
Last. Wei Xu (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
ABSTRACTWe created the Recognizing Excellence in Learning and Teaching (RELATE) Tool for Special Education Classroom Observation to fill the need for a well-researched, observational tool that provides a more accurate lens for observing instructional and social processes in the self-contained, special education setting. In this study, we examined the factor structure, descriptive, and psychometric properties of the RELATE Tool using 47 special education classrooms. The results of the descriptive...
3 CitationsSource
#1Christina Cipriano (UMassD: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth)H-Index: 3
#2Tia Navelene Barnes (UD: University of Delaware)H-Index: 9
Last. Susan E. Rivers (Yale University)H-Index: 29
view all 4 authors...
ABSTRACTStudents with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders (EBD) have the poorest academic and social outcomes across the general and special education student populations, and are among the most likely to receive instruction in self-contained special education classrooms hallmarked by small teacher-student ratios, frequent transitions, extreme student behaviours, and the regular presence of multiple adults in the room. These characteristics differentiate the interactions between adults and stude...
4 CitationsSource
In the lead article in this regular issue, Stenlund, Eklof, and Lyren (2017) have investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes ...
4 CitationsSource