« Ce que l'œil nous dit du cerveau » Fonctions exécutives, saccades oculaires & Neuropsychologie - Neuropsychiatrie

Published on Jan 1, 2007in Revue De Neuropsychologie
Christian Marendaz17
Estimated H-index: 17
Nathalie Guyader20
Estimated H-index: 20
Jennifer Malsert2
Estimated H-index: 2
Resume L’œil a deux fonctions : l’une perceptive (coder l’information lumineuse) et l’autre motrice (amener le regard sur des zones d’interets). Le present article s’interesse a la fonction motrice de l’œil, plus precisement aux mouvements oculaires de base que sont les saccades et les antisaccades. En effet, les mesures realisees sur ces saccades constituent un outil psy chophysique heuristique pour evaluer les fonctions de controle executif chez des patients cerebroleses ou psychiatriques. Cet article se divise en 3 parties. Les deux premieres posent les bases psychophysiques (para digmes experimentaux, mesures et variables de situation importantes) et cerebrales (aires cerebrales et circuiteries) des saccades. La troisieme par tie illustre comment l’etude des mouvements oculaires permet d’appre hender le developpement et le vieillissement des capacites d’activation et d’inhibition volontaires, et de caracteriser leur dysfonctionnement dans certains troubles neuropsychologiques ou psychiatriques.
#1Annik CharnalletH-Index: 12
#2Serge CarbonnelH-Index: 9
Last. Olivier MoreaudH-Index: 17
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We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study (1), an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory (4).
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#1Chloé Prado (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 4
#2Matthieu Dubois (UCL: Université catholique de Louvain)H-Index: 5
Last. Sylviane Valdois (CNRS: Centre national de la recherche scientifique)H-Index: 38
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Abstract The eye movements of 14 French dyslexic children having a VA span reduction and 14 normal readers were compared in two tasks of visual search and text reading. The dyslexic participants made a higher number of rightward fixations in reading only. They simultaneously processed the same low number of letters in both tasks whereas normal readers processed far more letters in reading. Importantly, the children’s VA span abilities related to the number of letters simultaneously processed in ...
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#1Tony Ro (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)H-Index: 45
#2Robert D. Rafal (Bangor University)H-Index: 56
Unilateral damage to visual cortex of the parietal or occipital lobe can cause the patient to be unaware of contralesional visual information due to either hemispatial neglect or hemianopia. It is now known that both neglect and hemianopia result from the disruption of a dynamic interaction between cortical visual pathways and more phylogenetically primitive visual pathways to the midbrain. We consider the therapeutic implications of these cortical–subcortical interactions in the rehabilitation ...
27 CitationsSource
#1Samuel B. Hutton (University of Sussex)H-Index: 36
#2Ulrich Ettinger ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 54
The antisaccade task is a measure of volitional control of behavior sensitive to fronto-striatal dysfunction. Here we outline important issues concerning antisaccade methodology, consider recent evidence of the cognitive processes and neural mechanisms involved in task performance, and review how the task has been applied to study psychopathology. We conclude that the task yields reliable and sensitive measures of the processes involved in resolving the conflict between volitional and reflexive ...
392 CitationsSource
#1Charlotte HanischH-Index: 5
#2R RadachH-Index: 1
Last. Kerstin KonradH-Index: 65
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The aim of the present study was to distinguish between a general deficit in oculomotor control and a deficit restricted to inhibitory functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we were interested in differentiating between a general inhibition deficit and deficient subfunctions of inhibition. We used a prosaccade task to measure general oculomotor abilities in 22 children with ADHD and in age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A fixation, an anti...
52 CitationsSource
#1Canan Karatekin (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 22
The goal of the study was to examine the effects of task manipulations on antisaccade accuracy and response times (RTs) of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), age-matched controls, 10-year-olds and young adults. Order effects were tested by administering the task at the beginning and end of the session. Other manipulations involved a visual landmark to reduce demands on working memory and internal generation of saccades; spatially specific and non-specific cues at t...
40 CitationsSource
#1Michael S. Salman (Toronto Western Hospital)H-Index: 18
#2James A. Sharpe (Toronto Western Hospital)H-Index: 44
Last. Martin J. Steinbach (Toronto Western Hospital)H-Index: 26
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Abstract Saccades are necessary for optimal vision. Little is known about saccades in children. We recorded saccades using an infrared eye tracker in 39 children, aged 8–19 years. Participants made saccades to visual targets that stepped 10° or 15° horizontally and 5° or 10° vertically at unpredictable time intervals. Saccadic latency decreased significantly with increasing age, while saccadic gain and peak velocity did not vary with age. Saccadic gains and peak velocities in children are simila...
68 CitationsSource
#1F. Xavier CastellanosH-Index: 105
#2Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke (University of Southampton)H-Index: 107
Last. Rosemary TannockH-Index: 97
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The hypothesis that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) reflects a primary inhibitory executive function deficit has spurred a substantial literature. However, empirical findings and methodological issues challenge the etiologic primacy of inhibitory and executive deficits in ADHD. Based on accumulating evidence of increased intra-individual variability in ADHD, we reconsider executive dysfunction in light of distinctions between ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ executive function measures. We propo...
893 CitationsSource
#1Benedikt Reuter (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 14
#2Eva Herzog (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 2
Last. Norbert Kathmann (LMU: Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)H-Index: 59
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The antisaccade task is well suited to study the interplay between environmental stimuli and action goals in controlling behavior. It requires subjects to look to the mirror position of visual stimuli. Schizophrenia patients usually show enhanced rates of erroneous saccades toward the stimulus. The present study was designed to investigate the role of task set activation and error detection for this impairment. Fifteen patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 15 control subjects made antis...
28 CitationsSource
Cited By2
#1Klara Kovarski (François Rabelais University)H-Index: 7
#2Marine Siwiaszczyk (François Rabelais University)H-Index: 1
Last. Marianne Latinus (François Rabelais University)H-Index: 22
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: Atypical visual exploration of both social and nonsocial scenes is often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with less precise and longer saccades, potentially reflecting difficulties in oculomotor control. To assess a subset of oculomotor functions in ASD, 20 children with ASD and 21 age-matched typically developing (TD) children (2.6-11.5 years) partook in three tasks of increasing complexity, while no explicit instruction was provided: a prosaccade gap task, a color and a "categorica...
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#1Olivier A. Coubard (Paris V: Paris Descartes University)H-Index: 2
#2Marika Urbanski (UPMC: Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University)H-Index: 13
Last. Marie GaumetH-Index: 1
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Vision is a complex function, which is achieved by movements of the eyes to properly foveate targets at any location in 3D space and to continuously refresh neural information in the different visual pathways. The visual system involves five routes originating in the retinas but varying in their destination within the brain: the occipital cortex, but also the superior colliculus, the pretectum, the supra-chiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract and terminal dorsal, medial and lateral n...
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