Extrinsic versus intrinsic approaches to managing a multi-brand salesforce: when and how do they work?

Published on Feb 11, 2016in Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
· DOI :10.1007/S11747-016-0473-X
Erin Adamson Gillespie5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Elon University),
Stephanie M. Noble22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UT: University of Tennessee),
Son K. Lam19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UGA: University of Georgia)
Sources
Abstract
This research contrasts two approaches to managing multi-brand salesperson efforts: (1) the extrinsic approach via a brand-specific quota emphasis, and (2) the intrinsic approach via salesperson brand identification. Using multi-source data from a large food distributor, we uncover how and when each approach is more effective. First, beyond its direct and indirect positive effects on salesperson brand-specific effort through salesperson brand psychological ownership, a brand-specific quota emphasis is more effective in boosting effort in selling the brand among more experienced salespeople. Second, beyond its indirect positive effect on salesperson effort through salesperson brand psychological ownership, salesperson brand identification is less effective at increasing salesperson effort among more competitive salespeople, suggesting a redundancy effect. These findings provide novel insights into the effectiveness of two distinct approaches to managing multi-brand salesperson effort and performance.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
53 Citations
28 Citations
References78
Newest
#1Wyatt A. Schrock (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 3
#2Douglas E. Hughes (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 16
Last. Eli Jones (UA: University of Arkansas)H-Index: 32
view all 5 authors...
This study assesses the direct and interactive effects of trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate on organizational commitment and sales performance using data collected from industrial salespeople and company records. Findings indicate that the positive impact of trait competitiveness on sales performance is contingent upon a highly competitive psychological climate, helping to explain inconsistent findings in the literature and underscoring the need for firms to manage the ...
39 CitationsSource
#1Adam Rapp (UA: University of Alabama)H-Index: 35
#2Raj Agnihotri (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 19
Last. James “Mick” Andzulis (LSU: Louisiana State University)H-Index: 4
view all 4 authors...
The importance of knowledge to the organization cannot be denied. However, to date little research has investigated the critical role individuals in sales and service representative positions play in the gathering and use of information in the organization and how this information can help them enhance their performance. Using social identity theory as a conceptual background, this paper reports two studies which investigate how organizational identification and role conflict impact the collecti...
53 CitationsSource
#1Andrew F. HayesH-Index: 56
#5namesH-Index: 1
2,500 Citations
#1C. Fred Miao (Clarkson University)H-Index: 11
#2Kenneth R. Evans (OU: University of Oklahoma)H-Index: 30
This research examines the interactive effects on industrial salespeople's intrinsic and extrinsic (I/E) motivation of outcome control, activity control, and capability control above and beyond their main effects. I/E motivation are disaggregated into their cognitive and affective dimensions. Moderated regressions using a sample of industrial salespeople find that (1) outcome control and capability control have positive interactive effects on task enjoyment and recognition seeking, (2) outcome c...
34 CitationsSource
#1Daniel Korschun (Drexel University)H-Index: 16
#2C. B. Bhattacharya (European School of Management and Technology)H-Index: 46
Last. Scott D. Swain (Clemson University)H-Index: 14
view all 3 authors...
This study examines frontline employee responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) using a multisourced data set at a Global 500 financial services company. The authors find that frontline employees identify with the organization (i.e., organizational identification) and with customers (i.e., employee–customer identification) as a function of how much the employees perceive management and customers (respectively) to support the company's CSR activities. However, these respective effects a...
294 CitationsSource
#1Christian Schmitz (RUB: Ruhr University Bochum)H-Index: 9
#2You Cheong Lee (HSG: University of St. Gallen)H-Index: 1
Last. Gary L. Lilien (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 62
view all 3 authors...
Although cross-selling offers significant benefits for both vendors and customers, three-quarters of all cross-selling initiatives fail, typically for sales force–related reasons. Prior research examining the antecedents of salespeople's product adoption has not yet shown whether or under which conditions such adoption behavior leads to better salesperson cross-selling performance. The authors develop a model of the role of supervisory behavior, compensation-based controls, and their interaction...
55 CitationsSource
#2Jessica M. Nicklin (UHart: University of Hartford)H-Index: 13
Last. Michael T. Ford (SUNY: State University of New York System)H-Index: 19
view all 3 authors...
More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly ...
747 CitationsSource
#1Paul J. Frick (UNO: University of New Orleans)H-Index: 109
#2James V. Ray (UNO: University of New Orleans)H-Index: 19
Last. Rachel E. Kahn (UNO: University of New Orleans)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on the use of callous and unemotional (CU) traits for designating an important subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems. It focuses on the etiological significance of recognizing this subgroup of youths with severe conduct problems, its implications for diagnostic classification, and the treatment implications of this research. The review highlights limitations in existing research and provides directions for f...
691 CitationsSource
The typical objective of a sales quota-bonus plan (QBP) is to enhance salespeople's performance by granting them a bonus when they reach a prespecified performance level (a sales quota), set higher than the performance level they would achieve otherwise. Even though QBPs are short-term plans, they have long-run profit impacts through their effects on a sales force morale and feelings of equity (or inequity). This is why devising sales quota plans has always been a difficult task. This paper's ob...
10 CitationsSource
#1Balaji Krishnan (U of M: University of Memphis)H-Index: 20
#2Richard G. Netemeyer (UVA: University of Virginia)H-Index: 65
Last. James S. Boles (J. Mack Robinson College of Business)H-Index: 47
view all 3 authors...
This paper posits and tests a model of the individual characteristics of self-efficacy, competitiveness, and effort as potential antecedents of salesperson performance. Based on two studies in different selling contexts, it is observed that whereas effort mediates the relationship between competitiveness and sales performance, self-efficacy has both direct and indirect effects on sales performance. Structural equation modeling results support the proposed model. Implications and conclusions of t...
132 Citations
Cited By15
Newest
#1Richard Conde (University of Houston–Downtown)
#2Victor R. Prybutok (UNT: University of North Texas)H-Index: 48
Last. Kenneth N. Thompson (UNT: University of North Texas)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Source
#1Valerie Good (GV: Grand Valley State University)H-Index: 2
#2Douglas E. Hughes (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 16
Last. Hao Wang (USF: University of South Florida)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Much of the current research on salesperson motivation focuses on extrinsic reward expectancy related to compensation, contests, incentives, and quotas. We find that while salespeople want to make money, they also want to make a difference and contribute to society through their work. In Study 1, the qualitative findings reveal that a sense of purpose–the belief that one is making a contribution to a cause greater and more enduring than oneself–is a significant motivator for salespeople. Hence, ...
Source
Source
Source
#1Moumita Das Gyomlai (OU: Ohio University)
#2Michael Ahearne (UH: University of Houston)H-Index: 52
Last. Jean-Noël Kapferer (Inseec Business School)H-Index: 46
view all 4 authors...
Source
#1Lisa Beeler (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 5
#2Alex R. Zablah (UT: University of Tennessee)H-Index: 20
Last. Adam Rapp (OU: Ohio University)H-Index: 35
view all 3 authors...
Prior research finds that the more attached salespeople are to a brand they sell, the more effort they extend on behalf of the brand, thus improving sales performance. However, high salesperson bra...
Source
#1Lee Allison (EKU: Eastern Kentucky University)H-Index: 2
#2Karen E. Flaherty (OSU: Oklahoma State University–Stillwater)H-Index: 19
Abstract Taking a social identity theory perspective, we uncover specific actions that firms can take to manage salespeople’s identification with the brands they sell. In particular, we identify five specific brand relationship investments that firms can leverage to increase a salesperson’s identification and engagement with a brand and, ultimately, performance: (1) tangible rewards, (2) communication, (3) productive consumption, (4) training, and (5) leader brand role modeling. Further, we sugg...
Source
#1Thomas A. Dotter (University of the Incarnate Word)
#2Vess Johnson (UALR: University of Arkansas at Little Rock)H-Index: 7
Abstract Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily to equip their sales organizations with interactive visual aids (IVAs) running on tablet PCs designed to increase sales productivity and reduce risks associated with regulatory non-compliance. However, research indicates that the majority of sales representatives within these organizations do not use the new technology. In this study, sales representatives from a major US-based pharmaceutical company are surveyed to better understand factor...
Source
This study aims to investigate the relationship between organization image, awareness effort, customer demandingness, self-efficacy and self-rated performance among salespersons of Islamic banking products in the UAE. It also explores the mediating role of awareness effort and self-efficacy, using a theoretical framework derived from social cognitive theory.,Data are collected by surveying salespersons in a mixed bank (a conventional bank with an Islamic banking department) in the UAE. The resea...
2 CitationsSource
#1Michaela MerkH-Index: 2
#2Géraldine Michel (Paris IV: Paris-Sorbonne University)H-Index: 11
Abstract While there is extensive literature on the positive impact of salesperson brand identification, we have little understanding about its negative effects in the luxury context where brand aura can generate deviant behavior. To investigate the negative consequences of salesperson brand identification in the luxury sector, we conducted qualitative studies, including observations and interviews with retail managers, salespeople and consumers. On the one hand and according to managers, salesp...
13 CitationsSource