Esclerosis múltiple: Revisión bibliográfica

Published on Jun 1, 2006
Dania Ruiz García3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Luis Alberto Solar Salaverri1
Estimated H-index: 1
Sources
Abstract
La esclerosis multiple es la causa principal de discapacidad neurologica en adultos jovenes. Tiene un amplio espectro clinico, desde formas benignas a malignas. En Cuba, region tropical considerada de baja prevalencia, existen alrededor de 550 a 1 650 pacientes. La enfermedad se inicia entre los 20 y los 40 anos, predomina en mujeres, su etiologia es desconocida y diversos mecanismos patogenicos han sido planteados. Es inmunomediada y se caracteriza por desmielinizacion, edema, remielinizacion y dano axonal. Existe en forma silente, o sea, que es activa incluso durante la aparente estabilidad clinica. Sus formas clinicas son exacerbacion-remision, cronica progresiva, benigna y aguda fulminante. Para el diagnostico se utilizan los criterios de Mc Donalds revisados. La resonancia magnetica de imagenes tiene valor para el diagnostico y para el pronostico. La metilprednisolona se emplea en el tratamiento de los brotes y para retardar las recurrencias, y el interferon beta 1, en la forma progresiva secundaria.
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#1Sha Mi (Biogen Idec)H-Index: 26
#2Robert H. Miller (Case Western Reserve University)H-Index: 75
Last. R. Blake Pepinsky (Biogen Idec)H-Index: 39
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The control of myelination by oligodendrocytes in the CNS is poorly understood. Here we show that LINGO-1 is an important negative regulator of this critical process. LINGO-1 is expressed in oligodendrocytes. Attenuation of its function by dominant-negative LINGO-1, LINGO-1 RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) or soluble human LINGO-1 (LINGO-1-Fc) leads to differentiation and increased myelination competence. Attenuation of LINGO-1 results in downregulation of RhoA activity, which has been implicate...
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#1Kakuri M. Omari (Albert Einstein College of Medicine)H-Index: 5
#2Gareth R. JohnH-Index: 30
Last. Cedric S. RaineH-Index: 57
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Subsequent to demyelination in multiple sclerosis, myelin repair occurs but, as lesions age, the ability to remyelinate diminishes. Molecular pathways underlying oligodendrocyte behaviour during CNS remyelination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time constitutive expression of the CXC/alpha chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR3, on oligodendrocytes in normal adult human CNS tissue, the levels of which were upregulated in multiple sclerosis and other neurologi...
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Last. Frederik BarkhofH-Index: 181
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical lesions constitute a substantial part of the total lesion load in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. They have been related to neuropsychological deficits, epilepsy, and depression. However, the proportion of purely cortical lesions visible on MR images is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of intracortical and mixed gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) lesions that can be visualized with postmortem MR imaging. METHODS: We studied 49 brain s...
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Purpose: to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells exhibit clonal expansion in patients recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). CSF B cell clonal expansion was detected early in the disease process. Evidence of receptor revision was present in at least one MS patient who had been recently diagnosed with MS. Targeting of mutations to RGYW/WRCY motifs within CDRs was nominally observed in the CSF B cell clones despite the high mutational frequencies (MF). These observations a...
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Olig1 and Olig2 are closely related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are expressed in myelinating oligodendrocytes and their progenitor cells in the developing central nervous system (CNS). Olig2 is necessary for the specification of oligodendrocytes, but the biological functions of Olig1 during oligodendrocyte lineage development are poorly understood. We show here that Olig1 function in mice is required not to develop the brain but to repair it. Specifically, we demonst...
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Environmental factors strongly influence the development of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Despite this clear association, the mechanisms through which environment mediates its effects on disease are poorly understood. Pertussis toxin (PTX) functions as a surrogate for environmental factors to induce animal models of autoimmunity, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Although very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind its function in disease deve...
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Abstract As a means of developing therapies that target the pathogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) without compromising the immune system or eliciting systemic side effects, we investigated the use of T-bet-specific antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) to silence T-bet expression in autoreactive encephalitogenic T cells and evaluated the biological consequences of this suppression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for MS. The T-bet-specific AS ...
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Following the loss of myelin from axons in multiple sclerosis, some axons recover the ability to conduct impulses despite the absence of an insulating sheath, providing a basis for remission of clinical deficits. By contrast, other axons degenerate and contribute to non-remitting clinical deficits and, thus, disability. Investigations using laboratory models of multiple sclerosis indicate that altered expression of two distinct isoforms of Na + channels underlies these two processes, and the stu...
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#2Brandon M. Sullivan (Harvard University)H-Index: 13
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The transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and T-bet control the differentiation of interferon (IFN)-γ–producing T helper type (Th)1 cells. Here we compare the role of T-bet and STAT1 in the initiation and regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease initiated by Th1 cells. T-bet–deficient mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were resistant to the development of EAE. This protection was also observed whe...
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with features suggestive of T-cell-mediated pathology. Most prior reports have focused on CD4+ T cells with the underlying assumption that MS is predominantly a CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1)-mediated disease. In this report, we used a novel flow cytometric approach to evaluate autoreactive T-cell responses against a large variety of neuroantigenic targets. We found that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells target...
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Cited By3
Newest
Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central. Es una patologia progresiva, con un curso fluctuante e imprevisible, que hasta la fecha no tiene un tratamiento curativo. Objetivo. Estudiar la efectividad de un programa de fisioterapia basado en ejercicio fisico precoz en un caso clinico de EM recurrente-recidivante tras un brote agudo. Desarrollo. El tratamiento fisioterapico comenzo una semana despues del brote, consistiendo en un progra...
#2Roberto PauloH-Index: 3
Last. Marcel L. ArriagaH-Index: 1
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammation of the CNS that due to its demyelination nature may present different clinical conditions. Manifestations in orofacial complex can be assessed as the first sign of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial alterations in MS patients and relate them to the clinical form of the disease. We developed a cross-sectional study that included 98 individuals with a diagnosis of MS. Data collection resulted from the application...
La esclerosis multiple es una enfermedad autoinmune, inflamatoria y desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central, de etiologia desconocida y evolucion cronica. Existen diferentes hipotesis etiologicas que hablan de una estrecha interrelacion entre factores geneticos predisponentes y factores ambientales disimiles, capaces de desencadenar la respuesta autoinmune a nivel del sistema nervioso central. La hipotesis de la patogenia autoinmune se basa en estudios en modelos experimentales y hallazgos ...
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