Differential Regulation of Native Estrogen Receptor-Regulatory Elements by Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Raloxifene
Published on Feb 1, 2008in Molecular Endocrinology3.628
· DOI :10.1210/ME.2007-0340
Estrogen receptors (ERs) regulate gene transcription by interacting with regulatory elements. Most information regarding how ER activates genes has come from studies using a small set of target genes or simple consensus sequences such as estrogen response element, activator protein 1, and Sp1 elements. However, these elements cannot explain the differences in gene regulation patterns and clinical effects observed with estradiol (E2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators. To obtain a greater understanding of how E2 and selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially regulate genes, it is necessary to investigate their action on a more comprehensive set of native regulatory elements derived from ER target genes. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-cloning and sequencing to isolate 173 regulatory elements associated with ERα. Most elements were found in the introns (38%) and regions greater than 10 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site (38%); 24% of the elements were found in the...