The health effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids

Published on Sep 1, 2006in Nutrition Bulletin3.609
· DOI :10.1111/J.1467-3010.2006.00571.X
J. Lunn7
Estimated H-index: 7
(British Nutrition Foundation),
H. E. Theobald4
Estimated H-index: 4
(British Nutrition Foundation)
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Abstract
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#1D.I. Givens (University of Reading)H-Index: 36
#2R. A. Gibbs (University of Reading)H-Index: 7
Summary The very long chain (VLC) n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are widely recognised to have beneficial effects on human health. However, recommended intakes of VLC n -3 PUFA (450 mg/day) are not being met by the diet in the majority of the population mainly because of low consumption of oil-rich fish. Current mean intake of VLC n -3 PUFA by adults is estimated to be about 282 mg/day with EPA and DHA contributin...
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Objective To review systematically the evidence for an effect of long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fatty acids on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer. Data sources Electronic databases searched to February 2002; authors contacted and bibliographies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) checked to locate studies. Review methods Review of RCTs of omega 3 intake for ≄ 6 months in adults (with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease) with data on a relevant outcome. Coh...
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To the Editor: Oh et al. ([1][1]) investigated the possible inverse association between consumption of fish/ n -3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs, marine omega-3 fatty acids mainly consisting of icosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and the risk of colorectal cancer in the Nurses'
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#1Eliana Marcia Wendland (UFRGS: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul)H-Index: 14
#2Andrew Farmer (University of Oxford)H-Index: 69
Last. Andrew Neil (University of Oxford)H-Index: 45
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Objective: To determine whether dietary supplementation with α linolenic acid (ALA) can modify established and emerging cardiovascular risk markers. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials identified by a search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), and the meta Register of Controlled Trials ( m RCT). Patients: All human studies were reviewed. Main outcome measures: Changes in concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipopr...
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#1T.A.B. Sanders ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 1
#2H.E. Theobald (British Nutrition Foundation)H-Index: 1
Publisher Summary Several recent dietary guidelines have advocated an increased consumption of long chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids [“PUFAs”] because of evidence that the consumption of these fatty acids is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. There is also growing recognition that long chain PUFAs, particularly arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, might be required in the diets of the neonate and that the maternal supply of DHA is largely dependent on the amou...
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#1Sara Stanner (British Nutrition Foundation)H-Index: 17
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#1Alexander Leaf (Harvard University)H-Index: 11
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Background— The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post–myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Methods and Results— Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind tr...
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#1Dariush Mozaffarian (Harvard University)H-Index: 154
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Background— The effect of fish oil on heart rate (HR), a major risk factor for sudden death, is not well established. We calculated this effect in a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in humans. Methods and Results— Randomized trials of fish oil that evaluated HR were identified through MEDLINE (1966 through January 2005), hand-searching of references, and contact with investigators for unpublished results. Two investigators independently extracted trial data. A...
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#1Graham C. Burdge (University of Southampton)H-Index: 66
#2Philip C. Calder (University of Southampton)H-Index: 141
The principal biological role of ?-linolenic acid (?LNA; 18:3n-3) appears to be as a precursor for the synthesis of longer chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Increasing ?LNA intake for a period of weeks to months results in an increase in the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in plasma lipids, in erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and in breast milk but there is no increase in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which may even decline in some pools at high ?LNA inta...
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High-fat diet (HFD) interferes with the dietary plan of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many diabetes patients consume food with higher fat content for a better taste bud experience. In this study, we examined the effect of HFD on rats at the early onset of diabetes and prediabetes by supplementing their feed with palm olein oil to provide a fat content representing 39% of total calorie intake. Urinary profile generated from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysi...
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Seeds of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) contain a large amount of protein (26.3%), dietary fiber (27.5%), and fatty acids (33.2%), including linoleic, α-linolenic, and some amount of Îł-linolenic acid. In our study, obese male Zucker rats (n = 6) at 8 weeks of age were supplemented for a further 4 weeks with either ground hemp seeds (12% diet) or lipid fractions in the form of hemp seed oil (4% diet). Hemp oil decreased blood plasma HDL-cholesterol (x0.76, p ≀ 0.0001), triglycerides (x0.55,...
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are obtained from various sources, which can be incorporated in the routine diet to maintain the health. They provide protection from several diseases like osteoarthritis, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Major focus is given to the PUFAs omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids which are available in both terrestrial and in the marine environment. The main concern of this article is to review the key scientific reports in context with the human health con...
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