Long-term follow-up of visual functions in prematurely born children--a prospective population-based study up to 10 years of age.

Published on Apr 1, 2008in Journal of Aapos1.22
· DOI :10.1016/J.JAAPOS.2007.08.012
Gerd Holmström34
Estimated H-index: 34
,
Eva Larsson19
Estimated H-index: 19
Sources
Abstract
Introduction Prematurely born children have an increased risk of ophthalmologic problems. There is still no consensus on how they should be followed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for problems in premature children at ten years of age and to discuss follow-up recommendations. Materials and methods One hundred ninety-nine children with a birth weight of 1500 g or less were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the neonatal period and thereafter ophthalmologically examined at 6 months, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 10 years of age. “Visual dysfunction” at ten years of age was defined as visual acuity ≥0.1 logMAR and/or strabismus and/or subnormal contrast sensitivity. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate risk factors at an early age, which could predict problems at ten years of age. Results Twenty-five percent of the cohort had visual dysfunction at ten years of age. Neurological complications, cryotreated ROP, anisometropia, and astigmatism were risk factors. The sensitivity was 75.5%, and the specificity 80.7% for the detection of visual dysfunction at ten years of age when all children with neurological complications, cryotreated ROP, strabismus, anisometropia ≥1 diopters (D) at 2.5 years, and astigmatism ≥2 D at 2.5 years were included in further follow-up. Conclusions Repeated ophthalmologic follow-up of prematurely born children should be performed in those with treated ROP and/or neurological conditions. For a third group without such problems, at least one follow-up is recommended. Such an examination also provides a good opportunity to identify neurological problems that warrant further ophthalmologic follow-up.
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References40
Newest
#1Terence Stephenson (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 53
#2Sharon WrightH-Index: 1
Last. Michael J. TobinH-Index: 11
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Background and objective: Few studies of low birthweight children have explored the relationship between later visual morbidity and neuropsychological function. This study evaluated these outcomes using a geographically defined cohort. Methods: Prospective study of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants born weighing Results: At 10–13 years, 99/198 children had an adverse ophthalmic outcome (AOO) (reduced acuity n = 48, myopia n = 40, strabismus n = 36, colour defect n = 2, field defect n =...
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#1Sean P. Donahue (VUMC: Vanderbilt University Medical Center)H-Index: 44
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Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and development of strabismus, at 10 years, in children born prematurely. Methods: This population-based study included 216 premature and 217 full-term children from the same geographic area. Results: Strabismus was noted in 16.2% (35 of 216) premature and in 3.2% (7 of 217) full-term children. The most important risk factors for strabismus at 10 years were anisometropia at 6 months, spherical equivalent refractive errors (ie, > +3 D or < -3 D) at 2.5 years, a...
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#1Eva Larsson (Uppsala University Hospital)H-Index: 19
#2Gerd HolmströmH-Index: 34
Objective To assess the development of astigmatism and anisometropia to 10 years of age in preterm children, previously included in a population-based study on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods Cycloplegic retinoscopies were performed in 198 preterm children at 6 months, 2½ years, and 10 years of age. We analyzed the development of astigmatism of 1 diopter (D) or more and anisometropia of 1 D or more. Results The amount and prevalence of astigmatism declined between 6 months a...
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#1Anna-Lena Hård (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 25
#2Ann Hellström (University of Gothenburg)H-Index: 60
. Purpose: To evaluate the extent to which ophthalmological follow-up at 2 years of age of children born before 32 weeks gestation identifies obvious visual problems, strabismus and significant ametropia (target conditions). Methods: Of 172 children born during a period of 2.5 years from January 2000, 142 underwent an ophthalmological examination at a median age of 2.33 years. This included evaluation of visual behaviour, cover testing and autorefractometry in cycloplegia. For children with the ...
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Aim: To survey existing ophthalmic follow up protocols in the United Kingdom for very low birthweight (VLBW) children. In addition, relative risk analysis was performed using data from a cohort study to assess which factors (birth weight, gestational age, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) status) led to a high risk of developing amblyogenic factors. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to every orthoptic department in the United Kingdom (n = 288) for information on their policy on the follow up of V...
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#1Eva Larsson (Uppsala University Hospital)H-Index: 19
#2Agneta RydbergH-Index: 14
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Aims: To determine the contrast sensitivity (CS) in 10 year old prematurely born children, previously included in a population based study on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and in full term controls. Methods: This study included 205 prematurely born children and 215 children born at term, from the same geographical area and study period. CS was assessed monocularly with the Vistech 6500 test at five spatial frequencies (1.5–18 cycles/deg). Results: Prematurely born children h...
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Purpose To provide information on retrolental fibroplasias (RLF), later known as retinopathy of prematurity. Design Review of the literature on the subject and a first-person account of what was then RLF by one of the authors (A.P.) who was involved in the earliest days in research regarding RLF. Methods MEDLINE search on the topics of RLF and retinopathy of prematurity plus a first-person historic review of original work that dealt with RLF. Results In 1942, elevated levels of oxygen were thoug...
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#1Graham E. Quinn (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 70
Aim Retinopathy of prematurity continues to be a serious, but largely preventable cause of blindness and its detection and treatment is of increasing importance as survival rates of premature babies increase. This is particularly important in Medium Human Development Countries where the guidelines for detection used in the US or UK may not be appropriate. Method This report addresses identification of infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity, detection, and treatment of serious disease, an...
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Objective To evaluate the development of refraction, expressed as spherical equivalents, in prematurely born children during the first 10 years of life. Methods Retinoscopy in cycloplegia was performed at 6 months, 2.5 years, and 10 years of age in 198 prematurely born children from a previous population-based study on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity. Spherical equivalents were calculated. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of less than 0 diopters (D), clinically significan...
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#2Gerd Holmström (Uppsala University)H-Index: 34
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PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate strabismus, stereoacuity, accommodation and convergence in prematurely born young adults; screened for retinopathy of prematurity in the neonatal period and compare with term-born individuals of the same age. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study participants included 59 prematurely born individuals with a birthweight of ≤1,500 grams and 44 term-born controls, all born during 1988-1990 in Stockholm County, Sweden. Ocular alignment was assessed with a cover ...
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Aims To assess visual function in young adults born preterm and compare with full-term individuals of the same age. Methods Young adults, born preterm (birth weight ≤1500 g) in 1988–1990, previously included in a population-based study on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Stockholm County, Sweden were included. A control group of participants born at term, in the same area during the same time period, was used for comparison. Best-corrected visual acuities were assessed at dis...
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Abstract Purpose To investigate whether a questionnaire can identify cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in a group of 6.5-year-old children born extremely preterm (EPT) as accurately as direct assessments. Methods This prospective population-based study included 120 children born before 27 weeks’ gestational age (66 males; mean, 25.4 ± 1.0 weeks) and 97 full-term controls (56 males; mean, 39.9 ± 1.1 weeks) at the age of 6.5 years, as part of the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS)....
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