Evolution of cooperation driven by the diversity of emotions

Published on Jan 1, 2015in Connection Science1.042
· DOI :10.1080/09540091.2014.956290
Neng-gang Xie10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Anhui University of Technology),
Kai-xuan Zhen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Anhui University of Technology)
+ 2 AuthorsLu Wang8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Anhui University of Technology)
Sources
Abstract
Biotic individuals often compare their own payoffs with those of others, which results in endogenetic emotions ranging from compassion to harshness towards a weaker player or from respect to envy feeling against a stronger fellow. Consequently, the individual reaction can be a cooperative or defect act. Our paper establishes possible interactions between emotional characteristics and behaviour modes of individuals. For this purpose, a genetic algorithm is used to study the evolutionary process within the framework of a Prisoner's Dilemma game. Our results highlight that the diversity of emotions can emerge spontaneously that is fruitful for the general cooperative act. Furthermore, it turned out that compassion is more important than respect, but both attitudes have better adaptability than harshness or envy feeling.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
5 Citations
2009IVA: Intelligent Virtual Agents
3 Authors (Celso M. Melo, ..., Jonathan Gratch)
40 Citations
References39
Newest
#1Attila Szolnoki (MTA: Hungarian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 70
#2Neng Gang Xie (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Matjaž Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 80
view all 4 authors...
We show that the resolution of social dilemmas in random graphs and scale-free networks is facilitated by imitating not the strategy of better-performing players but, rather, their emotions. We assume sympathy and envy to be the two emotions that determine the strategy of each player in any given interaction, and we define them as the probabilities of cooperating with players having a lower and a higher payoff, respectively. Starting with a population where all possible combinations of the two e...
58 CitationsSource
#1Attila SzolnokiH-Index: 70
#2Neng Gang Xie (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 1
Last. Matjaz Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 56
view all 4 authors...
The success of imitation as an evolutionary driving force in spatial games has often been questioned, especially for social dilemmas such as the snowdrift game, where the most profitable one may be the mixed phase sustaining both the cooperative and the defective strategy. Here we reexamine this assumption by investigating the evolution of cooperation in spatial social-dilemma games, where, instead of pure strategies, players can adopt emotional profiles of their neighbors. For simplicity, the e...
61 CitationsSource
#1Matjaz Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 56
#2Attila SzolnokiH-Index: 70
Prevalence of cooperation within groups of selfish individuals is puzzling in that it contradicts with the basic premise of natural selection. Favoring players with higher fitness, the latter is key for understanding the challenges faced by cooperators when competing with defectors. Evolutionary game theory provides a competent theoretical framework for addressing the subtleties of cooperation in such situations, which are known as social dilemmas. Recent advances point towards the fact that the...
1,397 CitationsSource
#1Attila SzolnokiH-Index: 70
#2Matjaz Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 56
We study the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that molds the random topology of the interaction network in two ways. First, existing links are deleted whenever a player adopts a new strategy or its degree exceeds a threshold value; second, new links are added randomly after a given number of game iterations. These coevolutionary processes correspond to the generic formation of new links and deletion of existing links that, espec...
156 CitationsSource
#1Attila SzolnokiH-Index: 70
#2Matjaz Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 56
We study the evolution of cooperation in structured populations within popular models of social dilemmas, whereby simple coevolutionary rules are introduced that may enhance players abilities to enforce their strategy on the opponent. Coevolution thus here refers to an evolutionary process affecting the teaching activity of players that accompanies the evolution of their strategies. Particularly, we increase the teaching activity of a player after it has successfully reproduced, yet we do so dep...
133 CitationsSource
#1Gabriele SchinoH-Index: 42
#2Filippo Aureli (LJMU: Liverpool John Moores University)H-Index: 69
Abstract This paper reviews recent work on reciprocal altruism in primates with the aim of highlighting the roles that reciprocal partner choice may have had in the evolution of primate altruism, and that emotions may play in supporting primates' ability to exert such reciprocal partner choice. Individual studies and meta‐analyses show that primates reciprocate a variety of behaviors that benefit other individuals (be they altruistic or mutualistic). These behaviors include grooming, agonistic s...
171 CitationsSource
#1Francisco C. Santos (ULB: Université libre de Bruxelles)H-Index: 36
#2Marta Santos (University of Lisbon)H-Index: 9
Last. Jorge M. Pacheco (University of Lisbon)H-Index: 55
view all 3 authors...
Humans often cooperate with each other, but the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action. Many existing models treat individuals as equivalent, ignoring diversity and population structure; however, here it's shown theoretically that social diversity, introduced via heterogeneous graphs, promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.
986 CitationsSource
#1Matjaž Perc (University of Maribor)H-Index: 80
#2Attila SzolnokiH-Index: 70
The diversity in wealth and social status is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by generating random variables that determine the social diversity of players engaging in the prisoner's dilemma game. Here the term social diversity is used to address extrinsic factors that determine the mapping of game payoffs to individual fitness. These factors may increase or decrease the fitness of a player depending on its location on the spatial gr...
555 CitationsSource
#1Hisashi Ohtsuki (Kyushu University)H-Index: 30
#2Martin A. Nowak (Harvard University)H-Index: 160
Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation based on the idea of repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine direct reciprocity in structured populations, where individuals occupy the vertices of a graph. The edges denote who interacts with whom. The graph represents spatial structure or a social network. For birth-death or pairwise comparison updating, we find that evolutionary stability of direct reciprocity is more restrictive on a graph than i...
62 CitationsSource
#1Attila Szolnoki (MTA: Hungarian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 70
#2György Szabó (ELTE: Eötvös Loránd University)H-Index: 46
Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma games with quenched inhomogeneities in the spatial dynamical rules are considered. The players following one of the two pure strategies (cooperation or defection) are distributed on a two-dimensional lattice. The rate of strategy adoption from randomly chosen neighbors is controlled by the payoff difference and a two-value pre-factor w characterizing the players whom the strategy learned from. The reduced teaching activity of players is distributed randomly with c...
346 CitationsSource
Cited By3
Newest
#1Ya-Yun Dai (Anhui University of Technology)
#2Guang-Jie Zhan (Anhui University of Technology)
Last. Neng-gang Xie (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 10
view all 7 authors...
In this paper, emotions are classified into four types, namely, respect for the strong, envying the strong, sympathy for the weak, and bullying the weak. The corresponding relationship between the four emotion types and the two behaviors of competition and cooperation is then defined. The payoff matrices of the game based on emotions are obtained and the evolutionary dynamics of the four emotion types in a finite population based on the Moran process are studied. Next, we derive the absorption p...
Source
This paper investigates an evolutionary iterated prisoner’s dilemma (IPD) model of multiple agents, in which agents interact in terms of the pair-wise IPD game while adapting their attitudes towards income stream risk. Specifically, agents will become more risk averse (or more risk seeking) if their game payoffs exceed (or fall below) their expectations. In particular, agents use their peers’ average payoffs as expectations (social comparison) when their payoffs are lower than their peers’ avera...
Source
#1Lu Wang (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 8
#2Shun-qiang Ye (College of Management and Economics)H-Index: 5
Last. Neng-gang Xie (Anhui University of Technology)H-Index: 10
view all 5 authors...
This paper develops an extended emotional model in the voluntary prisoner’s dilemma game. It fills a gap in the traditional imitation mechanism by assuming that players do not simply imitate pure strategies, but imitate the emotional profiles of one another instead. The relationship between emotional profiles and strategy are constructed and Monte Carlo simulations are performed on a square lattice. Simulation results reveal that with an increase in the temptation parameter T (1⩽T⩽2), the order-...
7 CitationsSource