Promoting integrative bargaining : mental contrasting with implementation intentions

Published on Nov 10, 2013in International Journal of Conflict Management2.547
· DOI :10.1108/10444061311316771
Dan Kirk7
Estimated H-index: 7
(NYU: New York University),
Gabriele Oettingen65
Estimated H-index: 65
,
Peter M. Gollwitzer90
Estimated H-index: 90
Sources
Abstract
Purpose – The present experiment aimed to test the impact of a self‐regulatory strategy of goal pursuit – called mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) – on an integrative bargaining task.Design/methodology/approach – Participants were randomly assigned to dyads and negotiated over the sale of a car. Before negotiating, participants were prompted to engage in MCII, or one or the other of its two component strategies: to contrast mentally achieving success in the integrative bargaining task with the reality standing in the way of this success (MC), to form implementation intentions on how to bargain (i.e. if‐then plans) (II), or both to contrast mentally and form implementation intentions (MCII).Findings – The strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions led dyads to reach the largest joint agreements, compared to dyads that only used mental contrasting or if‐then plans. Moreover, participants who mentally contrasted formed more cooperative implementation intentions than ...
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#1Caterina Gawrilow (Goethe University Frankfurt)H-Index: 16
#2Katrin Morgenroth (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 1
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Self-regulation is an important prerequisite for successful academic achievement, particularly for children who are at risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We taught Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII), a technique that is known to facilitate the self-regulation of goal pursuit, to schoolchildren (sixth- and seventh-graders) both at risk and not at risk for ADHD. Parents rated their children’s level of self-regulation 2 weeks after the intervention. Chil...
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#1Anja Achtziger (Zeppelin University)H-Index: 16
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Last. Peter M. Gollwitzer (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 90
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Two studies tested whether forming implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, Am Psychol 54:493–503 in 1999) results in a heightened activation of specified situational cues. Going beyond prior studies, participants of the present studies specified these opportunities on their own (i.e., the action cues were not assigned by the experimenter), and activation level was assessed by attraction of attention and recall performance rather than lexical decisions. In Study 1, situational cues associated with...
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#1Dan Kirk (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 7
#2Gabriele Oettingen (UHH: University of Hamburg)H-Index: 65
Last. Peter M. Gollwitzer (University of Konstanz)H-Index: 90
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Purpose – This paper aims to test the impact of several self‐regulatory strategies on an integrative bargaining task.Design/methodology/approach – Participants were randomly assigned to dyads and negotiated over the sale of a car. Before negotiating, participants were prompted to engage in one of three self‐regulation strategies, based upon fantasy realization theory (FRT): to mentally contrast a successful future agreement with the reality of bargaining, to exclusively elaborate on successful f...
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#1Dan Kirk (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 7
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Impulsive responses to ultimatums may cause rejection of unfair offers at a cost to oneself. A possible ameliorating strategy is self-regulation by setting goals and making plans geared toward controlling impulsive responses that may lead to rejection. Two studies test the hypothesis that entering an ultimatum with specific goals and plans (i.e., implementation intentions) will lead to increased acceptances of ultimatums that are unfair but more profitable than rejection. In Experiment 1 partici...
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Two brief intervention studies tested whether teaching students to mentally contrast a desired future with its present reality resulted in better academic performance than teaching students to only think about the desired future. German elementary school children (N = 49; Study 1) and US middle school children (N = 63; Study 2) from low-income neighborhoods who were taught mental contrasting achieved comparatively higher scores in learning foreign language vocabulary words after 2 weeks or 4 day...
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#1Peter M. GollwitzerH-Index: 90
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Adolescents struggle with setting and striving for goals that require sustained self‐discipline. Research on adults indicates that goal commitment is enhanced by mental contrasting (MC), a strategy involving the cognitive elaboration of a desired future with relevant obstacles of present reality. Implementation intentions (II), which identify the action one will take when a goal‐relevant opportunity arises, represent a strategy shown to increase goal attainment when commitment is high. This stud...
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In two experiments a self-regulatory strategy combining mental contrasting with the formation of implementation intentions (MCII) was tested for its effectiveness in diminishing unhealthy snacking habits. Study 1 (N ¼51) showed that participants in the MCII condition consumed fewer unhealthy snacks than participants in a control condition who thought about and listed healthy options for snacks. In Study 2 (N ¼59) MCII was more effective than mental contrasting or formulating implementationintent...
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Mental contrasting of a desired future with present reality leads to expectancy-dependent goal commitments, whereas focusing on the desired future only makes people commit to goals regardless of their high or low expectations for success. In the present brief intervention we randomly assigned middle-level managers (N = 52) to two conditions. Participants in one condition were taught to use mental contrasting regarding their everyday concerns, while participants in the other condition were taught...
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While mental contrasting of positive future and negative reality promotes commitment to feasible goals, it has not been tested whether it also promotes the choice of suitable means. In two studies we examined the effects of mental contrasting (Oettingen, 2000) on seeking and giving help as means to an end. For college-age students, mental contrasting about attaining academic help led to expectancy-dependent commitment to seek help (Study 1), while for critical care nurses, mental contrasting abo...
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