The effect of causal diagrams on text learning

Published on Jul 1, 2007in Contemporary Educational Psychology4.277
路 DOI :10.1016/J.CEDPSYCH.2005.11.002
Matthew T. McCrudden20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas),
Gregory Schraw68
Estimated H-index: 68
(UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
+ 1 AuthorsAnne M. Poliquin3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Sources
Abstract
We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who studied the causal diagram while reading the text understood better the five causal sequences in the text even when study time was controlled. Participants in Experiment 2 studied only the causal diagram or only the text. There were no differences in memory for main ideas or the causal sequences between these groups. Results indicate that causal diagrams are not merely redundant with text and that causal diagrams affect understanding of causal relationships in the absence of a text. These findings supported the causal explication hypothesis, which states that causal diagrams improve comprehension by explicitly representing the implicit causal structure of the text in a visual format.
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
References46
Newest
#1Caroline Dupeyrat (University of Toulouse)H-Index: 7
#2Claudette Marin茅 (University of Toulouse)H-Index: 11
Abstract This study tested and extended Dweck鈥檚 social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses. Findings were generally consistent with Dweck鈥檚 theoretical predictions. Striving for competence improvement (mastery goals) had a positive impact on...
Source
Previously, D. H. Robinson and G. Schraw (1994) found that advantages of graphic organizers (GOs) over outlines disappeared when testing was delayed. However, D. H. Robinson and K. A. Kiewra (1995), using a longer text and several displays, found that delayed testing was detrimental for outlines. In 2 experiments, the authors explored the boundary conditions of the delay hypothesis (T. Andre, 1990) with adjunct displays. In Experiment 1, the authors replicated the findings of Robinson and Schraw...
Source
#1Alison Gopnik (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 76
#2Clark Glymour (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 55
Last. David Danks (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 20
view all 6 authors...
We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate causal map of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental ...
Source
#1Paul van den Broek (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 61
#2Julie S. Lynch (UMN: University of Minnesota)H-Index: 1
Last. Kees Verduin (LEI: Leiden University)H-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
The authors investigated readers' ability to identify main ideas in narrative texts and the development of this ability. In particular, the authors explored students' sensitivity to the goal structure of narratives. Third-, 6th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students read narratives in which goal statements were systematically varied on 2 structural dimensions: position in the text's hierarchical structure and number of connections to other statements. As a measure of main idea comprehension, students s...
Source
#1Deborah L BandalosH-Index: 17
#2Sara J. Finney (JMU: James Madison University)H-Index: 23
Last. Jenenne A. GeskeH-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
Structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Data were collected after the midterm and final examinations in an introductory statistics course, and models were fit at each time point. Learning goals were positively related to the use of deep-processing strategies and to self-efficacy and were negatively related to test anxiety. Performance goals were positively related to disorganization in study strategies and to t...
Source
#1Shaaron Ainsworth (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 28
#2Andrea Th Loizou (University of Nottingham)H-Index: 1
Self-explaining is an effective metacognitive strategy that can help learners develop deeper understanding of the material they study. This experiment explored if the format of material (i.e., text or diagrams) influences the self-explanation effect. Twenty subjects were presented with information about the human circulatory system and prompted to self-explain; 10 received this information in text and 10 in diagrams. Results showed that students given diagrams performed significantly better on p...
Source
#1Wolfgang Schnotz (University of Koblenz and Landau)H-Index: 36
#2Maria Bannert (University of Koblenz and Landau)H-Index: 23
This paper presents an integrated view of learning from verbal and pictorial representations. Learning from these representations is considered as a task oriented process of constructing multiple mental representations. Construction of these representations includes information selection and information organisation, parsing of symbol structures, mapping of analog structures as well as model construction and model inspection. Based on this theoretical view an experiment was conducted to analyse ...
Source
Abstract Animation can provide learners with explicit dynamic information that is either implicit or unavailable in static graphics. However, the inclusion of temporal change in a visual display introduces additional and qualitatively different information processing demands. For learners to be successful in building high-quality mental models from animated instruction, they must extract thematically relevant information from the animation and incorporate it into their knowledge structures. Anim...
Source
AbstractThe premise of this paper is that the key to problem solving is adequately representing the problem to be solved. Most research has focused on how problems are (re)presented to learners. The assumption that those external representations naturally map onto learners鈥 internal representations of problems has not been confirmed. New research has examined the role of tools for externalizing learners鈥 internal representations. Descriptions of how three kinds of cognitive tools鈥攕emantic networ...
Source
#1Ioanna Vekiri (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 10
The article reviews studies that explain the role of graphical displays in learning and synthesizes relevant findings into principles for effective graphical design. Three theoretical perspectives provide the framework that organizes the review: dual coding theory, visual argument, and conjoint retention. The three theories are compatible although they are based on different assumptions. Research suggests that graphics are effective learning tools only when they allow readers to interpret and in...
Source
Cited By53
Newest
In traditional production plants, current technologies do not provide sufficient context to support information integration and interpretation. Digital transformation technologies have the potential to support contextualization, but it is unclear how this can be achieved. The present article presents a selection of the psychological literature in four areas relevant to contextualization: information sampling, information integration, categorization, and causal reasoning. Characteristic biases an...
Source
#1Pete LunnH-Index: 14
#2Shane TimmonsH-Index: 6
Last. F茅idhlim McGowan (Trinity College, Dublin)H-Index: 4
view all 7 authors...
Self-isolation is a vital element of efforts to contain COVID-19. We set out to test whether decision aids can support self-isolation. We conducted a pre-registered online experiment with a nationa...
Source
Source
#1F茅idhlim McGowan (Economic and Social Research Institute)H-Index: 4
#2Pete LunnH-Index: 14
This paper investigates whether exposure to explanatory diagrams can affect a major financial decision. In a controlled experiment, participants were given Pension Benefit Statements with or without one or two diagrams, before answering incentivised questions that measured recall, comprehension and choice of contribution rate. The diagrams had at best a marginal influence on recall or comprehension. Nevertheless, a diagram relating contributions to income projections prompted more participants t...
Source
#1Tiphaine Colliot (University of Rennes)H-Index: 4
#2Eric Jamet (University of Rennes)H-Index: 14
Source
#1Fatemeh Mohseni (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 2
#2Zohreh Seifoori (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 6
Last. Saeideh Ahangari (IAU: Islamic Azad University)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
AbstractThe present quasi-experimental research aimed to examine the differential effect of metacognitive strategy training and critical thinking awareness-raising on EFL learners鈥 reading comprehe...
Source
We compared performances on a learning task in which students (N = 81) viewed a pedagogical multimedia document without (control group) or with a readymade graphic organizer (readymade group) with performances on an active learning task where students self-generated a graphic organizer either totally (total self-generated group) or partially (partial self-generated group) while learning from the same multimedia document. According to the generative hypothesis, asking students to actively engage ...
Source
#1Roman Abel (University of Kassel)H-Index: 4
#2Martin H盲nze (University of Kassel)H-Index: 11
A high level of text comprehension can be achieved by engaging learners in processes of organization and integration while reading a cohesive text. In the present study, we investigated the impact of an innovative generative technique on learning with scientific texts. The cohesion generation was implemented by means of explicit cohesion gaps. High school students (n = 199) were randomly assigned to either receive a fully cohesive scientific text (control condition) or a scientific text that req...
Source
#1Steven McGeeH-Index: 10
#2Amanda M. DurikH-Index: 26
Last. Jennifer DuckH-Index: 3
view all 5 authors...
Ecosystem response to hurricane disturbance is complex and multi-faceted. The likelihood of increased frequency of severe hurricanes creates a need for the general public to understand how ecosystems respond to hurricanes. Yet, opportunities to study disturbances to complex systems are rare in U.S. K鈥12 schools. Educators and researchers in the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research program used the results of research on ecosystem response to hurricane disturbance in the Luquillo Experimental F...
Source
#1Terence J. McElvaney (Economic and Social Research Institute)H-Index: 3
#2Pete Lunn (Economic and Social Research Institute)H-Index: 14
Last. F茅idhlim McGowan (Economic and Social Research Institute)H-Index: 4
view all 3 authors...
Personal contract purchase (PCP) plans are innovative and increasingly popular forms of car finance. PCPs are inherently more complex than established financing options. The present study used experimental behavioural science to explore consumers鈥 comprehension of PCP plans and scope for beneficial interventions. Choice tasks, product rating tasks, and multiple choice comprehension questions were deployed to measure the consistency of decision-making and explicit comprehension of the product. Di...
Source
This website uses cookies.
We use cookies to improve your online experience. By continuing to use our website we assume you agree to the placement of these cookies.
To learn more, you can find in our Privacy Policy.